Gemma Bradford
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Biology f212 Mind Map on Smoking, created by Gemma Bradford on 04/14/2013.

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Gemma Bradford
Created by Gemma Bradford over 6 years ago
Smoking and its illnesses
bonyadi
Fitness and Health
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NCEA level 1 Genetics
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Models of Addictive Behaviour - Smoking
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Addiction
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QUIT
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Smoking
1 Tar
1.1 settles in lining of airways + alveoli
1.1.1 increases diffusion distance
1.2 Short term effects
1.2.1 allergic reactions
1.2.1.1 causing smooth muscle in airways to contract
1.2.1.1.1 lumen gets smaller
1.2.1.1.2 restricted airflow to alveoli
1.2.2 paralyses/destroys cilia on airway surface
1.2.2.1 unable to waft mucus up airway
1.2.3 stimulates goblet cells to produce more mucus
1.2.3.1 collects in airways
1.2.3.1.1 traps bacteria/viruses
1.2.3.1.1.1 lungs more vulnerable to infection
1.2.3.1.2 can block bronchioles
1.3 Long term
1.3.1 smokers cough
1.3.1.1 tries to shift bateria/mucus in lungs
1.3.1.2 irritation of airways by build up
1.3.1.3 tries to get air to alveoli
1.3.1.4 damages lining of airways + alveoli
1.3.1.4.1 replaced by scar tissue
1.3.1.4.1.1 thick, less flexible
1.3.1.5 smooth muscle in bronchiole wall thickens
1.3.1.5.1 reduces airway lumen
1.3.2 infections from bacteria/viruses in mucus
1.3.2.1 inflame airway lining
1.3.2.2 damage epithelium layer
1.3.2.3 attracts white blood cells
1.3.2.3.1 release enzymes to digest parts of lining of lungs to pass through air spaces
1.3.2.3.1.1 enzyme elastase damages elastic tissue of lungs
1.3.2.3.1.1.1 reduced elasticity of alveolus wall
1.3.2.3.1.1.1.1 no recoil
1.3.2.3.1.1.2 bronchioles collapse, trapping air in alveoli
1.3.2.3.1.1.2.1 alveoli can burst due to increasing lung pressure
1.4 mixture of chemicals - carcinogens
2 Lung cancer
2.1 caused by carcinogenic compounds
2.1.1 Benzopyrene = most harmful
2.1.2 in tar - lies on lung surfaces
2.1.3 enter nucleus of lung tissue cells
2.1.4 causes mutations upon entering nucleus'
2.1.4.1 mutation affects genes that control cell division = uncontrollable cell division is cancer
2.2 starts at bronchi entrance
2.3 takes 20-30 years to develop
2.4 symptoms
2.4.1 continual coughing
2.4.2 shortness of breath
2.4.3 pains in chest
2.4.4 blood
3 Diseases
3.1 chronic bronchitis
3.1.1 inflammation of airway lining
3.1.2 damage to cilia and extra mucus build up in lungs
3.1.3 symptoms
3.1.3.1 lung irritation
3.1.3.2 continual coughing
3.1.3.3 cough mucus
3.1.4 leads to increased risk of lung infection
3.2 emphysema
3.2.1 loss of elasticity of alveoli
3.2.2 alveoli burst
3.2.3 lungs have less surface area
3.2.4 symptoms
3.2.4.1 shortness of breath
3.3 COPD
3.3.1 combination of diseases
3.3.2 chronic bronchitis, emphysema + asthma
4 Nicotine
4.1 chemical = addiction
4.2 mimics action of trasmitter substances at synapses
4.2.1 nervous system more sensitive
4.2.2 smoker more alert
4.3 release adrenaline
4.3.1 increase breathing/heart rate
4.3.1.1 constricts arterioles = raises blood pressure
4.4 constriction of arterioles leading to extremities
4.4.1 reduces blood flow + oxygen delivery
4.5 makes platelets sticky
4.5.1 blood clot/thrombus
5 Carbon monoxide
5.1 enters red blood cells, combines with haemoglobin
5.1.1 carboxyhaemoglobin
5.1.2 reduces oxygen carrying capacity in blood
5.2 damages artery linings
6 CHD
6.1 atherosclerosis
6.1.1 carbon monoxide damages endothelium of arteries
6.1.2 damage repaired by phagocytes
6.1.2.1 encourages smooth muscle growth and fatty substance deposition
6.1.2.1.1 cholesterol - LDLs
6.1.2.1.2 also encouraged by high blood pressure
6.1.3 atheromas (deposits)
6.1.3.1 fibres
6.1.3.2 dead blood cells/platelets
6.1.3.3 cholesterol
6.1.3.4 build up under endothelium in arterty
6.1.3.4.1 can break through inner lining
6.1.3.4.2 forms plaque, sticking out into lumen
6.1.3.4.2.1 artery wall = less flexible, smaller lumen, reduced blood flow
6.2 Thrombosis

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