Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction

Vita Mishtii
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Unit 3 of Grade 12 chemistry Nelson textbook

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Vita Mishtii
Created by Vita Mishtii almost 6 years ago
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Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction
1 Thermochemistry
1.1 Energy Changes in Chemical and Nuclear Reactions
1.1.1 The Nature of Energy
1.1.1.1 Thermochemistry
1.1.1.2 Energy
1.1.1.3 Work
1.1.1.4 Potential Energy
1.1.1.4.1 Chemical Bonds
1.1.1.5 Kinetic Energy
1.1.2 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Temperature
1.1.2.1 Thermal Energy
1.1.2.1.1 More thermal energy=more movement
1.1.2.1.1.1 Heat
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 warm => cold
1.1.2.2 Temperature
1.1.2.2.1 increase as kinetic energy increases
1.1.3 Law of Conservation of Energy
1.1.3.1 universe divided into 2 parts
1.1.3.1.1 Chemical system
1.1.3.1.1.1 open
1.1.3.1.1.1.1 propane BBQ
1.1.3.1.1.2 closed
1.1.3.1.1.2.1 glowstick
1.1.3.1.1.3 isolated
1.1.3.1.1.3.1 impossible to set up one on EARTH
1.1.3.1.2 Surroundings
1.1.4 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
1.1.4.1 Exothermic
1.1.4.1.1 products have lower potential energy
1.1.4.1.1.1 stronger bonds
1.1.4.1.2 energy added on the products side
1.1.4.2 Endothermic
1.1.4.2.1 products have a higher potential energy
1.1.4.2.1.1 weaker bonds
1.1.4.2.1.2 energy on the reactant side
1.1.5 Nuclear Energy
1.1.5.1 reactions all exothermic
1.1.5.1.1 fusion
1.1.5.1.1.1 release vast amounts of energy
1.1.5.1.1.1.1 sun and star
1.1.5.1.1.1.2 scientists try to create generators but it's hard due to the intense heat and pressure
1.1.5.1.2 fission
1.1.5.1.2.1 does not occur in nature
1.1.5.1.2.2 elements above atomic number 83 are unstable and can undergo fission
1.1.5.1.2.2.1 nuclear power plants use fission of uranium to produce electricity
1.2 Calorimetry and Enthalpy
1.2.1 specific heat capacity
1.2.1.1 water : 4.18 J/g*C)
1.2.2 calorimetry and thermal energy transfer
1.2.2.1 calorimeter
1.2.2.1.1 well insulated reaction chamber
1.2.2.1.2 tight fitting cover with insulated holes for a thermometer
1.2.2.1.3 something to stir the calorimeter contents
1.2.2.1.4 coffee-cup
1.2.2.1.5 labratory
1.2.2.1.6 bomb
1.2.2.1.7 what to assume when using a coffee-cup calorimeter
1.2.2.1.7.1 thermal energy transferred to outside or absorbed is negligable
1.2.2.1.7.2 all dilute aqueous solutions have the same density and specific heat capacity as water
1.2.2.2 total amount of thermal energy absorbed or released: q=mcΔT
1.2.2.2.1 q+ =exo
1.2.3 enthalpy
1.2.3.1 +q = -H = exo
1.2.3.2 to obtain molar enthalpy value: nΔHr
1.3 Bond Energy
1.3.1 as the number of bonds increases the bond length shortends
1.3.1.1 bond breaking=exo; bond making =endo
1.3.1.2 more energy is needed to break multiple bonds than single
1.4 Hess's Law
2 Chemical Kinetics

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