Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction

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Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction
1 Thermochemistry
1.1 Energy Changes in Chemical and Nuclear Reactions
1.1.1 The Nature of Energy Thermochemistry Energy Work Potential Energy Chemical Bonds Kinetic Energy
1.1.2 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Temperature Thermal Energy More thermal energy=more movement Heat warm => cold Temperature increase as kinetic energy increases
1.1.3 Law of Conservation of Energy universe divided into 2 parts Chemical system open propane BBQ closed glowstick isolated impossible to set up one on EARTH Surroundings
1.1.4 Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions Exothermic products have lower potential energy stronger bonds energy added on the products side Endothermic products have a higher potential energy weaker bonds energy on the reactant side
1.1.5 Nuclear Energy reactions all exothermic fusion release vast amounts of energy sun and star scientists try to create generators but it's hard due to the intense heat and pressure fission does not occur in nature elements above atomic number 83 are unstable and can undergo fission nuclear power plants use fission of uranium to produce electricity
1.2 Calorimetry and Enthalpy
1.2.1 specific heat capacity water : 4.18 J/g*C)
1.2.2 calorimetry and thermal energy transfer calorimeter well insulated reaction chamber tight fitting cover with insulated holes for a thermometer something to stir the calorimeter contents coffee-cup labratory bomb what to assume when using a coffee-cup calorimeter thermal energy transferred to outside or absorbed is negligable all dilute aqueous solutions have the same density and specific heat capacity as water total amount of thermal energy absorbed or released: q=mcΔT q+ =exo
1.2.3 enthalpy +q = -H = exo to obtain molar enthalpy value: nΔHr
1.3 Bond Energy
1.3.1 as the number of bonds increases the bond length shortends bond breaking=exo; bond making =endo more energy is needed to break multiple bonds than single
1.4 Hess's Law
2 Chemical Kinetics

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