Ergogenic Aids

Lauren Brace
Mind Map by Lauren Brace, updated more than 1 year ago
Lauren Brace
Created by Lauren Brace about 4 years ago


A-Level Physical Education Mind Map on Ergogenic Aids, created by Lauren Brace on 02/25/2016.

Resource summary

Ergogenic Aids
1 An external influence used to improve performance
1.1 Enhance physical power
1.1.1 Protein loading
1.2 Enchance mental strength
1.2.1 Visualisation/mental rehearsal
1.3 Enhance mechanical edge
1.3.1 Pulleys and Parachutes
1.4 Delay onset of fatigue
1.4.1 Ice baths,ice vests,compression clothing
2 Carbohydrate loading
2.1 Stage 1
2.1.1 'stress' Little or no carb intake Maintain high training load 4-7 days before competition
2.2 Stage 2
2.2.1 'Super compensation' Increase carb intake Little or no training 24-48 hours before competition
2.3 Used by marathon runners,triathalons and cyclists
2.4 Advantages
2.4.1 Increase in glycogen stores
2.4.2 More energy
2.4.3 Improve edurance perfomers
2.5 Disadvantages
2.5.1 Risk of overweight
2.5.2 Effects sleeping pattern
3 Ice baths
3.1 Different approaches into the ice bath depending on nature of sport eg rugby
3.1.1 10 mins at 1 degrees in bath, 6 minute is key min Blood rush- cleans out waste from body
3.1.2 Rugby player uses all parts of body
3.1.3 Footballer uses mainly the legs
3.2 Advantages
3.2.1 Reduces DOMS
3.2.2 Reduces injury after training
3.2.3 Repairs microscopic tears
3.3 Disadvantages
3.3.1 Painful-may put perfomer off ice baths
3.3.2 Possibly medically dangerous as could lead to hyperthermia
3.3.3 Doesn't permanently get rid of muscle pain/soreness
4 Pulleys and parachutes
4.1 Pulleys
4.1.1 Swimmer Makes training specific
4.2 Parachutes
4.2.1 Sprinter Refining technique
4.3 Advantages
4.3.1 Development of type 2B muscle fibres
4.3.2 Improve neuromuscular
4.3.3 Hyertrophy increase
4.4 Disadvantages
4.4.1 Not suitable for aerobic perfomers
4.4.2 DOMS
4.4.3 Microscopic tears
5 Ice vest
5.1 Pre cooling
5.1.1 Aims to reduce skin temp and core body temp
5.1.2 Between 5 and 16 degrees celcius,maintain body temp at 37 degrees
5.1.3 Advisable before prolonged exercise in hot temp as it helps to sustain intensity and speed,reduces thermal strain,allows for different pacing strategies and increases excerice intensuty towards the end of performance
5.2 Post cooling
5.2.1 Used as part of recovery,can be used for acute(sudden) and chronic(overuse) injuries
5.2.2 RICE, ice reduces swelling and blood leakages into the tissue
5.3 Advantages
5.3.1 Increases rate of recovery
5.3.2 Drop in skin temperature
5.4 Disadvantages
5.4.1 Quite heavy
5.4.2 Can become uncomfortbable
5.5 Athletes in Olympic games which are in hotter countries than they are used to
5.5.1 England football team during world cup
6 Creatine loading
6.1 Stage 1:Loading
6.1.1 20g taken daily for 5-7 days
6.2 Stage 2:Maintenance
6.2.1 5g taken dailylasts 3-4 weeks
6.3 Stage 3:Rest period
6.3.1 None taken for 4 weeks
6.4 Advantages
6.4.1 Increase muscular hypertrophy
6.4.2 Higher glycogen levels-speeding up chemical reactions in the body
6.4.3 Helps increase overall workout intensity
6.5 Disadvantages
6.5.1 Causes cramping and dehydration
6.5.2 May cause liver and kidney damage
6.5.3 May lead to weight gain
6.6 Used by athletes that will utilise the PC system
7 Pre and Post meals
7.1 Used by endurance athletes to maximise the storage of glycogen in the muscle and liver
7.2 Pre meal
7.2.1 Should eat foods with a low to medium GI before match as wont have time to break in down
7.2.2 Consuming carbohydrate at least an hour before the start allows any hormonal imbalance to return to normal
7.2.3 low GI foods include; pasta,rice,milk,oatmeal
7.2.4 Disadvantages May not have enough time to do it Bloated,stitch,interdigestion,nausea,low energy
7.2.5 Advantages Increases glycogen stores,therefore increases endurance and capacity Increases liver glycogen stores prior to the event
7.3 Post meal
7.3.1 A large high-carbohydrate meal should be eaten within two hours of the finish e.g bananas and dried fruit,lucozade
7.3.2 Main meal several hours later consists of bread pasta etc and some sugar foods
7.3.3 Important that endurance athletes replenish stores as quickly as possible
7.3.4 Advantages Replenishes depleted glycogen stores,increasing recovery Carbohydrate stores used up during short-duration exercise can be replenished in a few hours
7.3.5 Disadvantages Doesn't work if you miss the pre meal as you lose the energy that you needed Don't have the correct food groups in the house
8 Blood doping
8.1 Is the injection of oxygenated blood into an athlete's body before an event in an illegal attempt to enhance an athletes performance
8.1.1 Increases number of red blood cells Replaces effects of altitude training
8.2 Process
8.2.1 Removal of 2 units several weeks prior to comp
8.2.2 Frozen until 1-2 days before comp
8.2.3 Thawed and injected back into the body
8.3 Advantages
8.3.1 Provides oxygen depletion and lactic acid formation
8.3.2 Increase in endurance level as theres more red blood cells
8.3.3 Allows extra oxygen to be transported to the working muscles
8.4 Disadvantages
8.4.1 Suffer from hypertension
8.4.2 Increased blood viscosity (thickness)
8.4.3 Very hard to detect
8.5 Used by endurance athletes,cyclists,skiers
9 Gene doping
9.1 illegal-impossible to detect
9.1.1 Lance Armstrong:Cyclist
9.2 Aims
9.2.1 Aerobic Erythopoietin Increases production of red blood cells Vascular endothelial growth factor A protein that increases the productivity of the body thereby the productivity of blood cell production
9.2.2 Anaerobic Myostatin Inhibits muscle growth,this is removed to increase muscle hypertrophy Insulin-liike growth factor 1 Stimulates muscle cell growth
9.3 Advantages
9.3.1 Increased muscle mass
9.3.2 Masks injury
9.3.3 Quicker recovery
9.4 Disadvantages
9.4.1 Risk of heart attack and stroke
9.4.2 Not human tested poses risk
9.4.3 not guaranteed to work
10 Sports drinks
10.1 The electrolytes in sports drinks ensure an acid to alkali balance
10.2 Needed to replace the fluids and electrolytes lost through sweating
10.3 Isotonic
10.3.1 Contain similar concentrations of salt and sugar as in the body
10.3.2 Team sports ,long distance runners, powerade
10.4 Hypertonic
10.4.1 Contain higher concentration of sugar and salt than the body
10.4.2 Used to replenish the body after high intensive work outs Consumed post work out
10.4.3 Ultra distance events, ironmans,fruit juice
10.5 Hypotonic
10.5.1 Quickly replace fluids lost by sweating
10.5.2 Contain a lower concentration of carbohydrate,salt and sugar than the body
10.5.3 Good for hydration but not for long periods of excercise/carbohydrate boost
10.5.4 Dancers,Gymnasts,Hockey, Lucozade sport light
10.6 Advantages
10.6.1 Helps to replace lost fluids
10.6.2 Replacement of electrolytes,prevents dizziness,cramps,sickness
10.6.3 Replenishment of carbohydrates-primary fuel source of body
10.7 Disadvantages
10.7.1 Water is a better alternative
10.7.2 Upset stomach
10.7.3 Carbohydrates in acidic environment cause erosion and dental cavities
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