ESL Methods & Approaches

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ESL Methods & Approaches
1 Communicative
1.1 1960's- 1970's: Research on language
1.2 STUDENT- CENTERE: FOCUSED ON COMMUNICATION & MEANINGFUL ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE
1.3 METHODS
1.3.1 silent Way (Historical)
1.3.1.1 Teacher- modeling/ talk
1.3.1.2 Reinforcement through repetition/ signals
1.3.1.3 Seldom content-based
1.3.2 Natural Way (Historical)
1.3.2.1 Stresses comprehensible input
1.3.2.2 Minimal error correction/ prodiction
1.3.2.3 Acceptance of students' L1
1.3.3 Suggestopedia
1.3.3.1 Emphasis on relaxed physical seting
1.3.3.2 Minimal error correction
1.3.3.3 Use of L1 for explanations
1.3.3.4 Not necessarily content- based
1.3.4 Integrated Content- Based
1.3.4.1 Focuses on L2 development
1.3.4.2 Focus on content & language integration
1.3.4.3 Subject area integrated into thematic units
1.3.5 Sheltered Instruction
1.3.5.1 Grade Level modified curriculm
1.3.5.2 Scaffolding instruction
1.3.5.3 Visuals, cooperative learning, & guarded vocabulary
1.4 Approaches
1.4.1 Ex's from sheltered instruction method:
1.4.1.1 Scaffolding
1.4.1.2 Guarded vocabulary
1.4.1.3 Cooperative learning
1.4.1.4 hands-on activities
1.4.2 Techniques
1.4.2.1 Reduced use of idioms
1.4.2.2 Manipulatives & realia
1.4.2.3 Simulations/ big books
1.4.2.4 Heterogeneous grouping
2 Cognitive
2.1 1980's & 1990's research on learning functions, memory, & cognitive
2.2 LEARNER- CENTEREED: LEARNING STRATEGY
2.3 METHODS
2.3.1 CALLA
2.3.1.1 Developmentally appropriate language instruction
2.3.1.2 Intentional focus on CALP development in L1 & L2 as related to content aread
2.3.1.3 Focus on prior knowledge
2.3.1.4 Explicit instruction in the following learning strategies:
2.3.1.4.1 Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social affective
2.4 APPROACHES
2.4.1 Examples from CALLA method
2.4.1.1 Cooperative learning
2.4.1.2 Explicit LS instruction
2.4.1.3 Maximizing content & language objectives
2.4.2 GENERAL EXAMPLES
2.4.2.1 KWL chart
2.4.2.2 Questioning
2.4.2.3 Word walls
2.4.2.4 Outlines
3 Grammatical
3.1 Greek & Latin instruction in 19th century
3.2 Rules & structures of target language are TEACHER-CENTERED
3.2.1 METHODS
3.2.1.1 Grammar- Translation
3.2.1.1.1 Focus on development of reading, writing, and grammar
3.2.1.1.2 Less emphasis on oral language development
3.2.1.1.3 Rules of grammar are taught holistically
3.2.1.2 Direct (Historical)
3.2.1.2.1 Focus on total immersion
3.2.1.2.2 No use of L1 allowed in the classroom
3.2.1.2.3 Open-ended response to materials the teacher brings into classroom
3.2.1.3 Audiolingual (Historical)
3.2.1.3.1 Grammar structures are carefully sequenced and taught
3.2.1.3.2 Minimal use of L1
3.2.1.3.3 Focus on error correction, drills, & repetitive practice
3.3 Direct Method Ex'amples
3.3.1 Drill & practice
3.3.2 Rote memorization
3.4 General Ex's/ Approaches
3.4.1 Dialogue memorization
3.4.2 Repetition
3.4.3 Mnemonics
3.4.4 Kinetics
4 CALLA INSTRUCTIONAL CONCEPTS
4.1 Balanced Reading Approach
4.1.1 Children do not learn to read in only one way, but that individual variation in literacy development.
4.2 Language Experience Approach
4.2.1 Students learn that what is said can be written down and what is written down can be read.
4.3 Standard Based Instruction
4.3.1 Based on national or state standards for each content subject area
4.3.2 Focuses on what is goin gon in students minds rather than in their overt responses.
4.4 Process Writing
4.4.1 Students learn that writing involves thinking, reflection, & multiple revisions
4.5 Cooperative learning
4.5.1 Students work in organized group settings so that all students share the responsibility for completing the task.
4.6 Inquiry Approach
4.6.1 Students transition through an inquiry cycle designed to help learning from experience.
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