Science C2

Danster.Gangster
Mind Map by Danster.Gangster, updated more than 1 year ago
Danster.Gangster
Created by Danster.Gangster almost 7 years ago
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Science Mind Map on Science C2, created by Danster.Gangster on 04/15/2013.
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Science C2
1 The Earth & Space
1.1 Our world
1.1.1 Our earth is made of different parts
1.1.1.1 The crust
1.1.1.1.1 This is a thin outer layer made of solid rock
1.1.1.1.1.1 It is made of Tectonic plates that are less dence than the crust, there are two different types: continental & oceanic
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The movements of these plates cause many natural disasters and change in position of land
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 E.g subduction where oceanic & continental collide causing the oceanic to sink and create volcanos and even earthquakes
1.1.1.1.1.2 the Lithosphere with is cold and rigid and is the very edge of the earth's crust
1.1.1.2 The core
1.1.1.2.1 This has an outer & inner section both made of iron
1.1.1.2.1.1 The inner core is solid whereas the outer core is liquid
1.1.1.2.2 The core creates energy via heat and is pushed up by convection currents, this causes the plates movements
1.1.1.3 Mantle
1.1.1.3.1 This completely covers the core
1.1.1.3.1.1 It is the layer between the core and the crust and is made of ductile rock
1.1.2 Natural disasters
1.1.2.1 Volcaones
1.1.2.1.1 Volcanes are caused by plates collideing causing weakness and abnormailties (upriseing of ground)
1.1.2.1.1.1 magma rises up from inside the earth and pass through these weaknesses causing eruptions and larva to be released on the earth's ground
1.1.2.2 Almost all natural disasters are caused by the plates movement
1.1.2.2.1 The plates movement causes this by colliding with each other
1.1.3 Pollution
1.1.3.1 Carbon Cycle
1.1.3.1.1 The carbon cycle shows that carbon is created and recycled by living organisums
1.1.3.1.1.1 E.g through respireation we create C02, Plants then intake this and create 02
1.1.3.1.1.2 However humans disrupt this due to more creation of CO2 and more O2 needed
1.1.3.1.1.2.1 This causes problems for wildlife and our planet as it is destroying the ozone layer and destroying habitats
1.1.3.1.1.2.2 pollution is created by creating harmful gasses such as CO2, this is usually a bi-product of different items
1.1.3.2 Human activity
1.1.3.2.1 We have an great effect on the planet as we create the most pollution
1.1.3.2.1.1 without such a large population, the earth would be able to recycle all carbon created
1.1.3.2.1.1.1 however we create too much disrupting the cycle and causing pollution
2 Construction
2.1 Cars
2.1.1 Cars use many different materials in different parts for different reasons
2.1.1.1 These can be for: Cost, Fuel economy,Quality of product etc
2.1.1.1.1 These are all effected by using different materials E.g steel over aluminium for the car body
2.1.1.1.1.1 Steel is much cheaper however has a much faster reaction rate with rust and is also heavier than aluminium
2.1.1.2 examples are plastic for dashboards and alloys for rims
2.2 Building
2.2.1 Most construction materials used are man made
2.2.1.1 for example; cement is made from limestone
2.2.1.2 This allows people to create new, more suited materials such as reinforced concreate
2.2.1.2.1 This helps as one material may lack a certain property such as concrete can break under tension so it is reinforced with steel
2.3 Materials
2.3.1 Alloys
2.3.1.1 Alloys are two metal elements that have been combined to create a new material
2.3.1.2 an example is: Copper+Tin=Bronze
2.3.1.3 There is also smart alloys which are more flexible and can return to original/change shape is heated
2.3.2 Metals
2.3.2.1 Metals are created by using ores (compounds) found in the ground
2.3.2.1.1 For example; copper can be obtained by converting ore into copper oxide
2.3.2.1.1.1 Electroylisis is then used to purify the smelted copper, however it can also be used to recycle
3 Chemicals
3.1 Amonnia
3.1.1 Amonnia is used in 80% of fertilisers and is mainly used Commercially (business & profit)
3.1.1.1 In the industry, the most yield is most important as the most money can then be earned
3.1.1.1.1 However creating the most yield can be expensive as more energy would be used
3.1.2 It contains Hydrogen and nitrogen (NH3)
3.1.2.1 It is created by heating the two chemicals together under high pressure
3.1.2.1.1 The optimum conditions for this is 450 degrees temp, pressure at 200 atm & an iron catalyst
3.1.3 The creation of amonnia is effected by the rate of reaction
3.1.3.1 Collision theory explains how we can change the rate of reactions
3.1.3.1.1 Temperature
3.1.3.1.2 Pressure
3.1.3.1.3 Surface area
3.1.3.1.4 Catalyst
3.2 Acids & Bases
3.2.1 These can be measured in strength with a PH scale (usually 1-14)
3.2.1.1 However these can be mixed together to neutralise each other(PH=7)
3.2.2 These all create water and more importantly a specific salt when mixed together
3.2.2.1 For example; Sulfuric acid+sodium hydroxide=salt+water
3.2.3 if the chemical has hydroxide, it is a base
3.2.3.1 The opposite applies to acids
3.2.3.2 A base is an alkali which has dissolved in water
3.3 Electrolysis
3.3.1 This is a test to extract pure copper from impure copper
3.3.1.1 this uses a cathode, anode and a electrical supply
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