End of the cold war

Meg Robinson
Mind Map by Meg Robinson, updated more than 1 year ago
Meg Robinson
Created by Meg Robinson about 6 years ago
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Mind Map on End of the cold war, created by Meg Robinson on 01/09/2014.

Resource summary

End of the cold war
1 Individuals
1.1 Gorbachev
1.1.1 glasnost
1.1.2 1986-perestroika
1.1.3 Didn't enforce Brezhnev doctrine
1.1.4 democratisation
1.1.5 Wanted to free up money from military spending
1.1.6 1985 became Soviet premier
1.1.7 1988-89 abandonment of Brezhnev doctrine
1.1.8 a country should "find it's own path to socialism"
1.1.9 1986 Reykjavik summit offered to eliminate all nuclear weapons by 2000
1.1.10 First premier to take a new stance
1.1.11 Good personal relationship with Reagan- often went off together with only translators
1.1.12 START agreement with US reduced nuclear arsenals by 30%
1.1.13 1988 announced Soviet forces in Easter Europe would be reduced by 500,000
1.1.14 Ended financial support to Ethiopia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Nicaragua and Angola
1.2 Reagan
1.2.1 Foreign Policy
1.2.1.1 Reagan Doctrine
1.2.1.1.1 Gave military or financial help to anti-communist govts or forces seeking to oust communist govts
1.2.1.1.2 e.g. the contras in Nicaragua
1.2.1.1.3 Only direct use of US troops in Grenada 1983 to depose left wing govt
1.2.1.1.4 Anti-aircraft missiles supplied to Mujahedeen in Afghanistan
1.2.1.1.5 Radio stations established in Eastern Europe to encourage protest e.g. radio free Europe and the voice of America
1.2.1.2 SDI
1.2.1.2.1 Very expensive
1.2.1.2.2 A similar programme would cripple the Soviet economy
1.2.1.2.3 Announced March 1983
1.2.1.2.4 Soviet scientists concluded it was impractical, imposed limited pressure
1.2.2 Rejected detente as a 'communist trick'
1.2.3 Technology
1.2.3.1 December 1981 Reagan restricted Soviet access to to US developed enery exploration technology
1.2.3.2 June 1982 restricted Soviet access to US oil, gas and related technical data
1.2.3.3 1974 US banned sale of advanced computers to USSR and its allies
1.2.3.3.1 By early 80s only 50,000 PCs in Russia, 30 millon in US
1.2.4 October 1981 53% increase in defense spending to fund:
1.2.4.1 B1 bomber
1.2.4.2 neutron bomb
1.2.4.3 stealth aircraft programme
1.2.4.4 navy expansion
1.2.4.5 deployment of MX missiles
1.3 Thatcher
1.3.1 Bridged the gap between Reagan and Gorbachev
1.3.1.1 1984 invited Gorbachev to London
1.3.2 "This is a man I can do business with"
1.3.3 Supported the Reagan doctrine
1.3.3.1 Promoted it to other Western European countries
1.3.4 Agreed to place US cruise missiles on British soil November 1983
1.4 Pope John Paul II
1.4.1 Fist Polish pope
1.4.2 Supported Solidarity
1.4.3 Catholicism became rallying figure for anti-communists
1.4.4 Visited Poland in 1979
1.4.4.1 12 million Poles saw him
1.4.5 Gave speeches promoting democracy and encouraging anti-communism
1.4.5.1 E.g. "do not be afraid"
1.4.6 Endorsed Solidarity through papal visits in 1983 and 1987
2 Economics
2.1 Soviet empire
2.1.1 1981-86 USSR provided Cuba with$4 billion of aid and oil subsidies and Vietnam with $6 billion
2.1.2 Warsaw Pact countries received $3 billion due to cheap oil from Soviet Union
2.2 Arms race
2.2.1 Mid-80s soviet military spending accounted for 25% of GDP, US military spending 7% of GDP
2.2.2 Military spending accounted for 40% of state budget by mid 80s
2.2.3 1980-1990 Us military spending increased by $112 billion
2.2.4 Military spending increased by 53% in 80s
2.3 Soviet industrial growth fell from 2-0% between 1980-87
2.4 25th December 1991 Soviet Union declared bankrupcy
3 People power
3.1
3.1.1 Failure of central economic planning
3.1.2 repression
3.1.3 Moral bankruptcy of communism
3.2 Change occurred rapidly and often peacefully
3.3 Growing trade with West during detente
3.3.1 Greater interest in free markets and communism
3.3.2 Saw higher standards of living in the West
3.3.3 Living standards in Eastern Europe declined in 1980s
3.3.3.1 Prices and unemployment rose
3.3.3.2 Food and consumer goods were in short supply
3.3.3.3 Large debts were owed to the West
3.3.3.4 USSR cut back on oil subsidies and natural gas supplies to satellite states
3.4 Hungary introduced multi party elections in 1983 and set free elections for 1990
3.4.1 More due to reformers in the govt than people power
3.5 In Poland Solidarity defeated the communist party in general elections 1989
3.6 Demonstrations in East Germany led to a new leader Krenz who opened the Berlin Wall
3.7 Czechoslovakia: Velvet revolution
3.7.1 November 1989 public demonstrations forced the govt to make reforms
3.7.2 Civic forum coordinated campaign against the communist govt
3.7.3 1989 Vaclav Havel: anti-communist elected president
3.8 Romania
3.8.1 Police ordered Laszlo Tokes (priest who had allowed poetry to be read in his sermons) to transfer out of the area, he refused
3.8.2 Crowds demonstrated in his support, Ceausescue sent army, open fired on demonstrators, 71 killed, tried to keep knowledge of this quiet but the news spread
3.8.3 Booed by demonstrators at a rally in Bucharest a week later, army unwilling to take action against crowds, Ceausescue and his wife fled but were later arrested
3.8.4 Securitate stayed loyal to Ceausescue until his execution on Christmas day
3.9 By end of 1989 every pro-soviet communist govt in Eastern Europe had gone
4 Summits
4.1 1985:Geneva Summit
4.1.1 Gorbachev proposed reduction of nuclear weapons by 50%
4.1.2 Wanted Reagan to stop SDI
4.1.3 Reagan refused
4.1.4 No agreement reached
4.2 1987: Intermediate-range nuclear forces treaty
4.2.1 cut 1750 Soviet missiles
4.2.2 cut 850 US missiles
4.3 1986 Reykjavik Summit
4.3.1 Gorbachev proposed to eliminate all nuclear missiles by 2000
4.3.2 Requested no SDI
4.3.3 Reagan refused
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