Biology 2

scottpjallen
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

GCSE Biology Mind Map on Biology 2, created by scottpjallen on 01/09/2014.

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scottpjallen
Created by scottpjallen almost 6 years ago
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Biology 2
1 Topic 1-Genes and Enzymes
1.1 Cells and Microscopy
1.1.1 Animal and Plant Cell
1.1.1.1 Nucleus
1.1.1.1.1 Contains DNA that controls what the cell does
1.1.1.2 Cytoplasm
1.1.1.2.1 Gel-Like substance where the most of the chemical reactions happen
1.1.1.3 Cell Membrane
1.1.1.3.1 Hold the cell together and controls what goes in and out
1.1.1.4 Mitochondria
1.1.1.4.1 Reactions for respiration take place. Respiration releases energy that the cell needs work
1.1.2 Specific to Plant
1.1.2.1 Rigid Cell Wall
1.1.2.1.1 Made of cellulose, Gives support for the cell
1.1.2.2 Large Vacuole
1.1.2.2.1 Contains cell sap
1.1.2.2.1.1 A weak solution of sugar and salts
1.1.2.3 Chloroplasts
1.1.2.3.1 Photosynthesis occurs. Contain chlorophyll
1.1.3 Bacteria
1.1.3.1 No Nucleus
1.1.3.2 Chromosomal DNA
1.1.3.2.1 One long circular Chromosome. Controls the cells activities and replication. It floats free in the cytoplasm(Not in the nucleus)
1.1.3.3 Plasmids
1.1.3.3.1 Small loops of extra DNA that aren't part of the chromosomes. Contain genes for drug resistance and can be passed between bacteria
1.1.3.4 Flagellum
1.1.3.4.1 Long, Hair like structure that rotates so the bacterium can move (Tail)
1.1.3.5 Cell Wall
1.1.4 Microscopes
1.1.4.1 Magnification= Length of Image/Length of Specimen
1.2 DNA
1.2.1 A double helix of paired bases, Two spirals
1.2.2 Pairs
1.2.2.1 A-Adenine
1.2.2.2 T-Thymine
1.2.2.3 G-Guanine
1.2.2.4 C-Cytosine
1.2.3 Discovered by Watson, Crick, Franklin, Wilkins
1.2.4 Extract DNA
1.2.4.1 Using onions
1.3 Protein Synthesis
1.3.1 Mutations
1.3.1.1 Can be Harmful, Beneficial or Neutral
1.3.2 Gene codes for a specific protein
1.3.3 Made by ribosomes
1.3.3.1 mRNA
1.3.3.2 Unzip
1.4 Enzymes
1.4.1 Catalysts produced by living things
1.4.1.1 Substance which increases the speed of a reaction, without being changed or used up in the reaction
1.4.2 Have specific shapes so they can catalyse reactions
1.4.2.1 Active site and the substrate joined on the enzyme then becomes the protein and the same enzyme
1.4.3 Measuring rate
1.4.3.1 Temperature
1.4.3.2 pH
1.5 Human Genome Project
1.5.1 To map the 25000+ genes
1.5.2 Help with the future in medicines and diseases
1.5.3 Bad- Stress, Problems, Discrimination
1.6 Genetic Engineering
1.6.1 Uses enzymes to cut and paste genes
1.7 Mitosis
1.7.1 Makes new cells for growth and repair
1.7.2 2 identical cells
1.7.3 Asexual reproduction
1.8 Meiosis
1.8.1 Gametes have half the usual number of chromosomes
1.8.2 Two Divisions
1.9 Cloning Animals
1.9.1 Made by adult cell cloning
1.9.2 Issues
1.9.2.1 Not as long life
1.9.2.2 Risks with the cloning
1.10 Stem Cells
1.10.1 Embryonic stem cells can turn into any type of cell
1.10.2 Cure many diseases
2 Topic 2-Life Processes
2.1 Respiration and Exercise
2.2 Photosynthesis
2.3 Osmosis
2.4 Water Uptake
2.5 Distribution of Organisms
3 Topic 3-Organ Systems
3.1 Evolution
3.2 Growth and Development
3.3 Cell Organisation
3.4 Circulatory System
3.5 Digestive System
3.6 Enzymes
3.7 Functional Foods

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