Anatomy and Physiology

Emily Cushlow
Mind Map by Emily Cushlow, updated 11 months ago
Emily Cushlow
Created by Emily Cushlow about 4 years ago


AS - Level AS PE Mind Map on Anatomy and Physiology, created by Emily Cushlow on 03/03/2016.

Resource summary

Anatomy and Physiology
1 The Skeleton
1.1 Cranium
1.2 Clavicle
1.3 Humerous
1.4 Sternum
1.4.1 Radius Phalanges Fibular Scapular
1.4.2 Carpals Femur Tarsal Vertebrae Patella Tibia Metatarsals Calcaneous
1.5 Pelvis
1.5.1 Ulna
1.5.2 Metacarpals
2 Muscles e.g.
2.1 Pectoralis major/minor
2.1.1 Vastus Laterallis rectus femoris Tricep brachii Obliques Bicep Femoris
2.2 Bicep Brachii
2.3 Rectus Abdominus
2.4 Illiopsoas
2.4.1 Vastus Intermedialis Vastus Medialis Tibialis anterior Erector Spinae Posterior deltoid Gastrocnemius Wrist extensors semi-membranosus semi-tendonusus
2.5 Wrist Flexors
3 Movement types
3.1 Abduction- moving away from the midline of the body
3.2 Adduction- moving towards the midline of the body
3.3 Circumduction- a body part moves from the anatomical position
3.3.1 Pronation- the radio ulna joint- the palm faces backwards or downwards Subination- the radio ulna joint- the palm faces forwards or upwards
3.4 Dorsiflexion- the foot moves towards the shin
3.4.1 Plantarflexion- the foot moves away from the shin Lateral flexion- bending sideways at the waist
4 Three types of motion
4.1 Linear- movement along a straight/curved line where all parts have the same speed, direction and distance e.g. skeleton
4.2 Angular- movement around a fixed point/axis e.g. a wheel's rotation in cycling
4.3 General- combination of linear and angular e.g. long jump
5 Types of force
5.1 Direct- force is applied through the object's centre of mass, resulting in linear motion e.g. striking the centre of a football
5.2 Eccentric- force is applied outside the centre of mass resulting in angular motion e.g. striking the edge of a football
6 Newton's Laws of Motion
6.1 Inertia- "a body/object continues in a state of rest or uniform velocity unless acted on by an external force" e.g. kicking a static football
6.2 Acceleration- "the rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to it" e.g. kicking the ball harder means it travels faster
6.3 Action and reaction- "for every action and reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction" e.g. the force the ball exerts onto the tennis racket is exerted back onto the racket
7 Stablility
7.1 how difficult it is to disturb a body from a balanced position
7.2 Centre of mass= the point at which the body is balanced in all directions
7.3 Base of support= an imaginary line around everything in contact with the ground
7.4 Line of gravity= a line travelling from the centre of mass vertically to the ground
8 The heart
8.1 The Cardiac Cycle
8.2 The Conduction System
8.3 Heart rate= the amount of heartbeats in a minute (average is 70-72bpm)
8.4 Stroke Volume= the volume of blood that leaves the heart each beat (average 70ml)
8.5 Coronary Heart Disease
8.5.1 Arteriosclerosis
8.5.2 Atherosclerosis
8.5.3 Angina
8.5.4 Heart attack
8.6 Cardiac output= the volume of blood that leaves the heart per minute (average 4900ml)
9 Venous Return
9.1 Starling's Law
9.2 Maintaining Venous Return
9.2.1 Pocket Valves One way valves in the veins prevent backflow of blood and direct it towards the heart
9.2.2 Muscle Pump Veins are found between skeletal muscles, which when contracting/relaxing push/squeeze blood to the heart
9.2.3 Respiratory Pump Breathing becomes deeper/faster during exercise, increasing pressure in the abdomen, squeezing large veins and forcing blood back to the heart
9.2.4 Smooth Muscle Contraction/relaxation of smooth muscle in the middle layer of the vein walls helps push blood through the veins
9.2.5 Gravity Blood from the upper body is aided by gravity as it descends to the heart
9.2.6 Blood Pooling Blood Pressure Resistance The friction of the blood cells as they travel against the vessel wall; this is termed viscosity (fluid friction) Exercise The pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls If there is insufficient pressure to push deoxygenated blood back to the heart, blood will sit in the pocket valves of veins Blood pooling is often described as a feeling of heavy legs
10 Cardiac Control Centre (CCC)
10.1 Neural Control
10.1.1 Proprioreceptors which detect muscle activity change, chemoreceptors which detect chemical change and baroreceptors that detect the stretching of blood vessel walls
10.2 Hormonal Control
10.2.1 Before/during exercise, adrenaline is released from the adrenal glands to directly stimulate the SA node, increasing HR and SV
10.3 Intrinsic Control
10.3.1 Detects an increase in temperature and venous return as exercise increases and vice versa
10.4 Located in the Medulla Oblongata, it controls HR and SV. The CCC is involuntary and is controlled by the ANS
10.4.1 ANS is divided into sympathetic, which increases HR, and parasympathetic, which decreases HR.
11 The VCC and Vascular Shunt Mechanism
12 Transport of O2 and CO2
12.1 Vascular effects of a Warm Up
12.1.1 Vasoconstriction of arterioles/pre-capillary sphincters to restrict blood flow to organs and vice versa
12.1.2 Decrease in onset of blood lactate accumulation due to early anaerobic activity onset
12.1.3 Increase in temperature decreases blood viscosity to improve blood flow
12.1.4 Increased temperature increases enzyme transportation required for energy systems and muscle contraction
12.2 Vascular effects of a Cool Down
12.2.1 Elevates metabolic activity to gradually decrease HR and BR
12.2.2 Maintains blood flow to continue supply of oxygen and maintain blood pressure
12.2.3 Maintains respiratory + muscle pumps for venous return and blood pooling prevention
12.2.4 Dilates capillaries to flush muscles with oxygenated blood + increase lactic acid ad C02 removal
12.3 Oxygen= 3% blood plasma + 97% oxyhaemoglobin
12.4 Carbon Dioxide= 7% blood plasma + 23% carbominahaemoglobin + 70% carbonic acid
13 Respiration System
13.1 Mechanics of Breathing
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