Demography

dousl002
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Sociology (Demography) Mind Map on Demography, created by dousl002 on 04/16/2013.

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dousl002
Created by dousl002 over 6 years ago
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Demography
1 Decline in the Infant Mortality rate and Death rate
1.1 Explanations
1.1.1 Improved hygiene, sanitation and medicine
1.1.1.1 Construction of public sewer systems and clear running water
1.1.1.2 Advances in science and medicine
1.1.1.2.1 Such as vaccines
1.1.2 Higher living standards
1.1.2.1 Reduces death rates
1.1.2.2 Higher wages, better good, more appliances in the home, inside toilets
1.1.3 Public health and welfare
1.1.4 Health education
1.1.5 Improved working conditions
1.2 in 1902 the death rate was 18 per 1,000
1.2.1 This has decline to around 10 per 1,000 in 2007
1.3 The infant mortality rate has fallen from around 142 per 1,000 live births in 1902
1.3.1 To around 5 per 1,000 in 2007
1.4 Average life expectancy has consequently risen
1.4.1 Men can expect to live, on average to around the age of 77
1.4.2 Women can expect to live, on average around 81 years old
2 Ageing population
2.1 This is caused by decline in the death rate and increased life expectancy
2.2 The average age of the population is getting higher
2.2.1 A greater proportion of the population over retirement age
2.2.2 A smaller proprotion of young people in the population
2.3 Decline in the birrth rate has meant fewer children are being born
2.3.1 This has changed the overall age structure of the population
2.3.2 In 1901, only 4% were over the age of 65
2.3.2.1 But by 2007 this had risen to about 16%
2.4 Figure 3.2 shows that in 1951 there was quite a rapid decline in the proportion of people over the age of 50 in the population as a whole,
2.5 By 2001 there is more of a 'bulge' in the middle age groups
2.5.1 By 2031 the older age rgoups make up a much larger proportion of the population
2.6 Effects on the family
2.6.1 More lone person households
2.6.1.1 Due to partners dying
2.6.2 Elderly relatives can help with childcare/babysitting
2.6.3 Family can support elderly relatives financially
2.6.4 Could be a return of classic extended family
3 Decline in birth rate, fertility rate and average family size
3.1 Reasons
3.1.1 Contraception
3.1.2 Compulsory education of children
3.1.2.1 Children barred from emloyment in 19th century
3.1.3 Changing position of women
3.1.3.1 More women are becoming childless in Britain today
3.1.4 Declining infant mortality rate
3.1.4.1 Parents no longer have more children as security against only a few surviving
3.1.4.1.1 Due to a decrease in the infant mortality rate
3.1.5 Geographically mobile labour force
3.1.5.1 A workforce that can easily move to other areas for work or promotion
3.1.6 Changing values
3.2 The birth rate has been decliining in Britain, form 28 per 1,000 in 1902 to 11 per 1,000 in 2007
3.3 The fertility rate has been declining
3.3.1 Average of 2.77 children per woma in 1961
3.3.1.1 This has reduced to about 1.8 in 2006
3.3.2 Meaning that the average family and household size has been dropping
3.3.2.1 From around 6 children per family in the 1870's to around 1.8 children per family in 2007
3.4 The average household size in Britain has also almost halved in the last hundred years from around 4.6 people to around 2.4 in 2007

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