Chemistry years 9 + 10

Caitlin Hadfield
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

this is a mindmap briefly covering everything students are taught through years 9 + 10.

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Caitlin Hadfield
Created by Caitlin Hadfield almost 6 years ago
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Chemistry years 9 + 10
1 YEAR 10
2 YEAR 9
2.1 ATOMS,ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS.
2.1.1 Atom: its the smallest indivisible (can't divide) particle.
2.1.2 Element: something thats made up of one kind of atom.
2.1.3 Compound: when different kinds of atoms are put together.
2.1.4 Mixture: different compounds put together but not connected / touching / do not react together.
2.1.5 The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons.
2.1.6 The atomic number (or proton number)of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms
2.1.6.1 eg: fluorine - atomic number: 9 - mass number: 19
2.1.6.1.1 number of protons = atomic number =9 number of electrons = number of protons = 9 number of neutrons = 19 - 9 = 10
2.1.7 The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
2.2 LIMESTONE
2.2.1 used to make Calcium Oxide and Cement.
2.2.1.1 make Concrete by mixing sand, aggregate, and water.
2.2.2 Calcium Carbonate (CaCO30 decomposes when heated to make Calcium Oxide (CaO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) : Thermal Decomposition
2.2.2.1 equation : CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2
2.2.3 LIMESTONE CYCLE
2.3 REACTIONS OF CARBONATES
2.3.1 Metal + Non-Metal = ion
2.3.1.1 metal atoms lose one or more electrons to form positively charged ions. Non-Metal atoms gain electrons to form negatively charged ions.
2.3.2 All Metal Carbonates decompose to the Metal Oxide and Carbon dioxide when they are heated strongly enough .
2.3.3 Carbon Hydroxide solution is called Limewater.
2.3.3.1 Limewater turns cloudy when it reacts with carbon dioxide to produce insoluble calcium carbonate.
2.4 AIR POLLUTION
2.4.1 PARTICULATES
2.4.1.1 cause: Burning fossil fuels and wood. particulates vary in composition and size. effects: fine particulates can get into lungs causing breathing difficulties. They make cars and buildings dirty.
2.4.2 CARBON MONOXIDE
2.4.2.1 Cause: incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. This can happen in faulty gas appliances and road traffic. Effect: Carbon Monoxide is very dangerous because it decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. If untreated, this can lead to death.
2.4.3 SULFUR DIOXIDE
2.4.3.1 Cause: power stations burning fossil fuels containing sulfur. Effects: Sulfur Dioxide is an acidic gas that can combine with water vapour in the atmosphere to cause rain. Breathing Sulfur Dioxide can cause respiratory proble
2.5 Properties and uses of Alloys
2.5.1 in a pure metal the atoms are stocked in layers and when a force is applied the layers slide easily.
2.5.2 in an alloy there are different sized atoms in the structure and when a force is applied, the layers can't move easily because of the different sized atoms blocking and jamming up the structure.
2.5.3 bolts and hinges aren't made from pure brass and copper because they are too soft on their own . Copper has to be mixed with other metals in order to be strong enough.
2.5.4 properties of a metal: shiny, good electrical conductor
2.6 EXTRACTING METALS
2.6.1 rock that contains enough of a metal or a metal compound to make it worth extracting the metal is called an ORE.