validity

dman gutter
Mind Map by dman gutter, updated more than 1 year ago
dman gutter
Created by dman gutter over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on validity, created by dman gutter on 03/10/2016.

Resource summary

validity
  1. types of validity
    1. internal validity
      1. 3 challenges of internal validity
        1. The cause and effect must be related
          1. cause must precede effect
            1. The cause must be the only factor responsible for the effect
            2. indicates if results reflect experimental manipulation of iv
              1. did the IV cause an effect in the DV
              2. poor internal validity if
                1. There is an alternative explanation for the result
                  1. Things other than the IV differ between groups
                    1. Poor internal validity can be caused by a confounding variables
                      1. threats to internal validity
                        1. selection bias
                          1. Having groups that were different from one another before the study began
                          2. maturation
                            1. Biological or psychological changes that occur due to maturation can include the dependent variable
                            2. repeated testing / sequence effect
                              1. When the administration of a task early in the study affects performanceon a later task
                              2. regression to the mean
                                1. Extreme scores on a DV will tendto be less extreme when they are assessed again
                                2. history
                                  1. Historical events that occur during the course of a study can influence the DV
                                  2. instrumentation
                                    1. The scoringof an instrument might change over time and this changes scores on the DV
                                    2. attrition
                                      1. loss of participant, ie drop out, death
                                      2. Diffusion of treatment
                                        1. Information a participant has learned about a study (from other participants) influences their behaviour when they participate
                                        2. subject effects
                                          1. The participant influences the effects observed in the DV ie placebo
                                          2. experimenter effects
                                            1. treating groups differently
                                    3. construct validity
                                      1. Whether the manipulation or measurement is related to the underlying psychological construct it should be
                                        1. face validity
                                          1. extent to which a manipulation or measure looks, on the face of it, to be valid
                                          2. convergent validity
                                            1. extent to which different measures or manipulations of the same construct are related(correlated)
                                              1. Correlate your measure with another measure that has already been shown to possess high construct validity
                                            2. discriminative validity
                                              1. the extent to which measuresor manipulations of different constructs are unrelated(not correlated
                                                1. Show that your measure gives different outcomes from a measure of a different construct
                                              2. Content validity
                                                1. extent to which a measure represents a balanced and adequate sampling of the relevant construct
                                                  1. important for multiple question construct Ask an expert if the items assess what you want them to assess
                                              3. external validity
                                                1. Indicates the extent to which the results of a study can be generalised to other people, conditions, places and time
                                                  1. Mainly concerns the participant and testing situation
                                                  2. Threats to external validity
                                                    1. Poor selection of participants
                                                      1. Participant selection involves the correct sampling of participants and the assignment of participants to treatment conditions
                                                        1. Your sampling will determine the population to which your results will generalise
                                                      2. Pre-test sensitisation
                                                        1. When the presence of a pre-test condition changes the effectiveness of the subsequent treatment
                                                          1. If treatment is repeated without the pre-test, different results occur
                                                          2. Multiple treatment interference
                                                            1. Participants receive an unintended treatment in addition to the intended treatment
                                                            2. statistical validity
                                                              1. How appropriate were the statistical methods that were used
                                                        2. When an experiment actually tests the hypothesis you want it to test
                                                          1. Whether a method actually measures what you intend it to measure
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