Capitalism & Apartheid

rosiep
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

South & Southern Africa Mind Map on Capitalism & Apartheid, created by rosiep on 01/15/2014.

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rosiep
Created by rosiep almost 6 years ago
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Capitalism & Apartheid
1 establishment of apartheid
1.1 British colonial segregation continuities (Christopher, 1983)
1.1.1 Native Land Acts
1.2 apartheid proper: National Party 1948
1.2.1 legalised and institutionalised race discrimination and segregation in SA introduced from 1948 onwards
1.2.1.1 Group Areas Acts of 1950 and 1966
1.2.1.2 Population Registration of 1950
1.2.2 ethnic mobilization of Afrikaners
1.2.2.1 white workers and farmers fear of Oorstrooming 'overrunning of the cities'; undercutting of wages
1.2.2.1.1 electoral platform
1.2.3 homelands for blacks; 'parallel development' (1970) for coloureds and Indians
1.2.3.1 1984 'Own Affairs'; belated exercise in co-option
1.2.3.2 'petty apartheid': transport, post offices, benches, toilets, beaches
1.2.3.2.1 ideological; inefficient but cost reduced by passing Reservation of Seperate Amenities Act in 1953 (separate not =)
1.3 Native Laws Amendment 1952
1.3.1 reinforced existing controls on labour movement; permits required
1.4 'friction theory'
1.4.1 assumes physical means to spiritual goal (Paton)
1.5 attempt to maintain white political and economic power in 'legitimate' way; not just based on ideas of racial superiority
2 liberal vs. Marxist critiques
2.1 presented as triumph of the frontier over economic rationality (Legassick, 1980) - was it?
2.1.1 Bantustan education
2.1.1.1 Edgar Brookes (1968): 'the only education system in the world designed to restrict the productivity of its pupils'
2.1.2 changing economic base
2.1.2.1 mining to manufacture
2.1.2.2 manufacture and service sector became more skill and capital intensive - increasingly demand a free and mobile labour force
2.1.3 increasingly saturated domestic market
2.1.4 exports were rendered uncompetitive by protectionism (Lemon & Gibb, 2002)
2.1.4.1 1982 - poss highest subsidies for decentralisation in the world
2.1.5 job reservation
2.1.5.1 artificially high wages and undeserved job security for whites
2.1.5.2 few incentives for blacks to work hard
2.1.6 state interference in labour productivity outweighed any benefits of reduced labor costs (Natrass, 1991)
2.1.6.1 unemployment rose consistently under apartheid from the mid 1960s due to declining absorption capacity of formal sector (Rogerson, 1995)
2.1.7 Moll (1991): manufacturing exports fell steadily from 1955 to 1985 explained by apartheid super structure
2.1.7.1 seriously inefficient use of black workers
2.1.8 Fine & Rustomjee (1996): manufacturing sector in prolonged state of stagnation, dependent on MEC core
2.1.9 direct costs: internal and external security; sanctions
2.1.9.1 disinvestment, loss of potential interest, refusal of the banks to lend
2.1.9.2 external more expensive following Portuguese revolution in 1974
2.2 O'Meera (1983): 'NP gov after 1948 secured the political conditions for rapid accumulation by all capital'
2.2.1 ANC - communist leanings - very broad way in which apartheid maintained capitalist state albeit one that interfered with the normal process of capitalist accumulation
2.2.2 migrant labour system: intensified exploitation of black workers
2.2.2.1 migrant workers made up 98% of the mine labour force
2.2.2.2 mining wages in 1970 had not changed in real terms since 1911 (Wilson, 1972)
2.2.2.3 reserve production enabled employers to force down wages (Wolpe, 1972)
2.2.2.3.1 reserve production a myth (Lansdown Commission 1943)
2.2.2.3.1.1 labor of women and children req for reproduction of labor force
2.2.2.4 Chamber of Mines opposed rigidifying labour force helped to maintain supplies of labour
2.2.2.4.1 BUT req that miners be 'repatriated' hindered recruitment from local area
2.2.2.4.1.1 transport subsidies needed to bring in black workers from periphery; KwaNdbele where subsidy to Putco bus company was higher than entire GDP of homeland (Lelyveld, 1987)
2.2.3 mining >> manufacture
2.2.3.1 domestic balck working in mines fell from 1962 peak of 157,000 to 86,500 in 1971 (Lemon, 1987)
2.2.3.2 more dependent on foreign labour in mines
2.2.4 restricting geographical distribution of labour and occupational distribution through job reservation >> violated one of the central principles of captialism
2.2.4.1 interfering with the market

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