The Peopling of South Africa

Mind Map by rosiep, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by rosiep about 6 years ago


South & Southern Africa Mind Map on The Peopling of South Africa, created by rosiep on 12/21/2013.

Resource summary

The Peopling of South Africa
1 Khoisan Peoples
1.1 Khoikhoi (pastoralists) - mostly killed in smallpox outbreak or absorbed into coloured population
1.2 San (hunters) - forced to retreat (Bantu) from early 17th century; mainly in Botswana today
2 Bantu Peoples
2.1 linguistic group; 'ntu' =human being; found in southern two thirds of Africa
2.1.1 in SA - Nguni, Sotho, Venda, Tonga Peoples and 'homelands' Nguni - Zulu (Kwazulu),Xhosa (Ciskei and Transkei) Swazi (KaNgwane), South Ndebele (KwaNdebele) Zulu military conquest in mid 19th century known as mfecane; expaned absorbing groups; fluid ethnicity Buthelezi - leader of Inkatha Freedom Party; draws on myths of Zulu military history to mobilise Jacob Zuma is Zulu Nguni staple crop maize, avoid fish Sotho - North Sotho (Lebowa), South Sotho (QwaQwa), Tswana (Bophuthatswana) traditionally (19th C) lived between Orange River and Limpopo Venda (Vanda) south of Limpopo in NE of country Tsonga - Shangaan (Gazankulu)
2.2 Structures
2.2.1 over 600 tribal authorities - how to incorporate these into democracy?
2.2.2 structures fluid: strangers accepted, similarities in symbolism, rituals, law
2.3 77% of total pop of 45m; herders and cultivators esp cattle; staple crop mize; ancient migration from east Africa; Zulu expansion led to 'mfecane'
2.3.1 'mfecane' = warfare in early 19th century; pressure on the European's 'eastern front'; Ndebele flee into 'Rhodesia'
3 Dutch/Boers/Afrikaners
3.1 1652 - Jan van Riebeck founded Dutch East India company refreshment station
3.1.1 bitter almond hedge; first attempt at apartheid (between Dutch and Khoikhoi) overcome by economic pressures
3.2 French Huguenots 1688 - 1700
3.2.1 protestant refugees
3.3 Germans in 18th century
3.4 The Great Trek in 1830s/40s north eastwrds away from British control in the Cape (angered by anti slavery movement); aim to get to Natal
3.4.1 Boer War 1899 - 1902
3.5 nationalism based on memory of suffering under British rule; death of 26,000 Boers in concentration camp; The Great Trek; Afrikaaner language; Dutch Reform Church; divine intervention in Battle of Blood River
3.5.1 expressed through National Party (founded 1915; governed 1948 - 1994; disbanded 2005 under name of New National Party) & Herstigte Natiosale Party (ultra conservative)
4 British
4.1 1795: French revolutionary armies invaded Holland; Britain occupied the Cape by arrangement with the Dutch King
4.1.1 1802 - 5: Cape restored to Dutch Republic 1805: Britain reoccupied the Cape and retained it until the Act of Union in 1910 1820: settlers in Eastern Cape; intended to secure eastern frontier; approx 5,000; large compared to existing population 1848 1851: Byrne settlers in Natal (J.C. Byrne & Co.); British character in Natal SA became essentially independent within British Commonwealth post 1910
5 Coloured People
5.1 slave population 1652 - 1672: 75% of children born to slave women had European fathers
5.1.1 slaves brought from West Africa, Mozambique, Dutch East Indies from 1650s import ended 1807 - 21 emancipation 1839 : 39,000 mostly in Cape Town and hinterland
5.1.2 1685: intercourse with slave women prohibited but continued esp w soldiers and sailors
5.1.3 children of mixed unions became a people apart from late 18th C; does not refer to white - bantu mix (bantu not in the area)
5.2 Khoikhoi also important contributors to group; san less so
5.2.1 slave descendants predominant esp in W Cape - 85% of coloureds
5.3 mostly in the Cape; 'Cape coloureds'
6 Indians
6.1 1860 - 1917: 140,000 inc 10% 'passenger' migrants (restricted from 1896) who paid their own passage
6.1.1 indentured labour; brought to Natal; sugar plantations; cotton; later railways; N Natal coal mines, servants most stayed
6.1.2 indentured = min. 25 women per 100 men whereas 'passenger' more like 50:50; 30% of contemporary Indians descended from 'passengers'
6.1.3 movement controlled; excluded from OFC and N Natal until 1985; 80% in Natal today 1950 Census - only on Indian in OFC!
6.2 smallest group; over 80% live in KwaZulu Natal today
7 1820 - 1860: only 40,000 of all nationalities emigrated tp SA
7.1 labour was performed by slaves/coloureds/blacks >> only room for the employing class
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