The Peopling of South Africa

rosiep
Mind Map by rosiep, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by rosiep about 6 years ago
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South & Southern Africa Mind Map on The Peopling of South Africa, created by rosiep on 12/21/2013.
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The Peopling of South Africa
1 Khoisan Peoples
1.1 Khoikhoi (pastoralists) - mostly killed in smallpox outbreak or absorbed into coloured population
1.2 San (hunters) - forced to retreat (Bantu) from early 17th century; mainly in Botswana today
2 Bantu Peoples
2.1 linguistic group; 'ntu' =human being; found in southern two thirds of Africa
2.1.1 in SA - Nguni, Sotho, Venda, Tonga
2.1.1.1 Peoples and 'homelands'
2.1.1.1.1 Nguni - Zulu (Kwazulu),Xhosa (Ciskei and Transkei) Swazi (KaNgwane), South Ndebele (KwaNdebele)
2.1.1.1.1.1 Zulu military conquest in mid 19th century known as mfecane; expaned absorbing groups; fluid ethnicity
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Buthelezi - leader of Inkatha Freedom Party; draws on myths of Zulu military history to mobilise
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Jacob Zuma is Zulu
2.1.1.1.1.2 Nguni staple crop maize, avoid fish
2.1.1.1.2 Sotho - North Sotho (Lebowa), South Sotho (QwaQwa), Tswana (Bophuthatswana)
2.1.1.1.2.1 traditionally (19th C) lived between Orange River and Limpopo
2.1.1.1.3 Venda (Vanda)
2.1.1.1.3.1 south of Limpopo in NE of country
2.1.1.1.4 Tsonga - Shangaan (Gazankulu)
2.2 Structures
2.2.1 over 600 tribal authorities - how to incorporate these into democracy?
2.2.2 structures fluid: strangers accepted, similarities in symbolism, rituals, law
2.3 77% of total pop of 45m; herders and cultivators esp cattle; staple crop mize; ancient migration from east Africa; Zulu expansion led to 'mfecane'
2.3.1 'mfecane' = warfare in early 19th century; pressure on the European's 'eastern front'; Ndebele flee into 'Rhodesia'
3 Dutch/Boers/Afrikaners
3.1 1652 - Jan van Riebeck founded Dutch East India company refreshment station
3.1.1 bitter almond hedge; first attempt at apartheid (between Dutch and Khoikhoi) overcome by economic pressures
3.2 French Huguenots 1688 - 1700
3.2.1 protestant refugees
3.3 Germans in 18th century
3.4 The Great Trek in 1830s/40s north eastwrds away from British control in the Cape (angered by anti slavery movement); aim to get to Natal
3.4.1 Boer War 1899 - 1902
3.5 nationalism based on memory of suffering under British rule; death of 26,000 Boers in concentration camp; The Great Trek; Afrikaaner language; Dutch Reform Church; divine intervention in Battle of Blood River
3.5.1 expressed through National Party (founded 1915; governed 1948 - 1994; disbanded 2005 under name of New National Party) & Herstigte Natiosale Party (ultra conservative)
4 British
4.1 1795: French revolutionary armies invaded Holland; Britain occupied the Cape by arrangement with the Dutch King
4.1.1 1802 - 5: Cape restored to Dutch Republic
4.1.1.1 1805: Britain reoccupied the Cape and retained it until the Act of Union in 1910
4.1.1.1.1 1820: settlers in Eastern Cape; intended to secure eastern frontier; approx 5,000; large compared to existing population
4.1.1.1.1.1 1848 1851: Byrne settlers in Natal (J.C. Byrne & Co.); British character in Natal
4.1.1.1.2 SA became essentially independent within British Commonwealth post 1910
5 Coloured People
5.1 slave population 1652 - 1672: 75% of children born to slave women had European fathers
5.1.1 slaves brought from West Africa, Mozambique, Dutch East Indies from 1650s
5.1.1.1 import ended 1807 - 21
5.1.1.1.1 emancipation 1839 : 39,000 mostly in Cape Town and hinterland
5.1.2 1685: intercourse with slave women prohibited but continued esp w soldiers and sailors
5.1.3 children of mixed unions became a people apart from late 18th C; does not refer to white - bantu mix (bantu not in the area)
5.2 Khoikhoi also important contributors to group; san less so
5.2.1 slave descendants predominant esp in W Cape - 85% of coloureds
5.3 mostly in the Cape; 'Cape coloureds'
6 Indians
6.1 1860 - 1917: 140,000 inc 10% 'passenger' migrants (restricted from 1896) who paid their own passage
6.1.1 indentured labour; brought to Natal; sugar plantations; cotton; later railways; N Natal coal mines, servants
6.1.1.1 most stayed
6.1.2 indentured = min. 25 women per 100 men whereas 'passenger' more like 50:50; 30% of contemporary Indians descended from 'passengers'
6.1.3 movement controlled; excluded from OFC and N Natal until 1985; 80% in Natal today
6.1.3.1 1950 Census - only on Indian in OFC!
6.2 smallest group; over 80% live in KwaZulu Natal today
7 1820 - 1860: only 40,000 of all nationalities emigrated tp SA
7.1 labour was performed by slaves/coloureds/blacks >> only room for the employing class
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