Cardiovascular Disease

joejthomas
Mind Map by joejthomas, updated more than 1 year ago
joejthomas
Created by joejthomas about 6 years ago
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A-level Biology Mind Map on Cardiovascular Disease, created by joejthomas on 01/18/2014.
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Cardiovascular Disease
1 Aneurysm (saccular)
1.1 Atheroma plaque weakens arteries & increases blood pressure
1.1.1 Blood travels through artery at high pressure
1.1.1.1 Pushes inner layers through outer elastic layer of the artery
1.1.1.1.1 Balloon-like swelling
1.1.1.1.1.1 This can burst causing Haemorrhage
2 Thrombosis
2.1 Atheroma plaque can rupture endothelium
2.1.1 Damages artery wall
2.1.1.1 leaves a rough surface
2.1.1.1.1 Platelets and fibrin build up at the site
2.1.1.1.1.1 Blood clot (Thrombus)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Complete blockage
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Dislodged and end up elsewhere
2.1.1.1.1.1.3 Debris from clot can cause more clots
3 Atheroma
3.1 Artery wall made of multiple layers
3.1.1 Endothelium (inner lining) - Smooth
3.1.1.1 If damage occurs to Endothelium, lipids and white blood cells clump together to form 'fatty streaks'
3.1.1.1.1 Over time, this continues. Connective tissue builds up, this hardens to form fibrous plaque
3.1.1.1.1.1 Atheroma
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Partial blockage of Lumen
3.1.1.1.1.1.2 Restricts blood flow
3.1.1.1.1.1.3 Blood pressure may increase
4 Myocardial Infarction
4.1 Coronary arteries supply heart
4.1.1 Oxygen for respiration
4.1.1.1 Myogenic Muscle
4.1.1.2 If a coronary artery becomes blocked, it receives no oxygen
4.1.1.2.1 Myocardial infarction (Heart attack)
4.1.1.2.1.1 Chest pain
4.1.1.2.1.2 Sweating
4.1.1.2.1.3 Short of Breath
5 Risk Factors
5.1 Cholestrol
5.1.1 <240mg/100cm3
5.1.1.1 One of the main products that lead to atheromas
5.1.1.1.1 Blood clots could block coronary arteries
5.2 Smoking
5.2.1 CO bonds with haemoglobin
5.2.1.1 Less oxygen
5.2.2 reduces antioxidants in blood
5.3 Hypertension
5.3.1 Increases risk of damage to artery walls
5.3.1.1 Atheroma
5.3.2 Obesity
5.3.3 Alcohol
5.3.4 Lack of exercise
5.4 Genetic & controlled
5.4.1 Genetic predisposition
5.4.1.1 e.g. Diabetes
5.4.1.1.1 heart arrhythmias
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