184.108.40.206 Lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest
energy level and become positively charged
220.127.116.11 Gain electron, or electrons, from another
atom to become negatively charged ions
18.104.22.168 SOLID- at room temperature amd have a high melting and
boiling point. This is because strong forces of attraction
because of oppositely charged ions.
22.214.171.124 CONDUCT ELECTRICITY - when molten or dissovled (NOT SOLID). This is because
the ions are free to move and carry an electrical charge. They are usually
SOLUBLE IN WATER. Water has a positive and negative end, so ionic ions can
attract and dissolve.
1.1.4 FOR EXAMPLE
1.1.5 Have giant ionic lattices in which there are strong electrostatic forces in all directions
between oppositely charged ions. These compounds have high melting and boiling points
because of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds.
1.2 COVALENT BONDING
1.2.1 A covalent bond is a strong bond between two non-metal atoms. It consists of a shared pair of electrons.
When non-metals react together they need to gain electrons to fill their outer shell and become stable.
126.96.36.199 FOR EXAMPLE: Carbon has 4 electrons on its outer shell. Hydrogen has 1 electron. Hydrogen
shares its electrons and makes Carbon have a full outer shell. Carbon now has 8 electrons on
its outer shell (FULL). This creates Methane.
1.2.2 WEAK INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
1.2.3 FORCES ARE VERY STRONG
2.1 METALLIC BONDING
2.1.1 POSITIVE IONS SURROUNDED BY DELOCALISED ELECTRONS
2.1.2 STRONG ATTRACTION BETWEEN IONS AND
2.1.3 HIGH MELTING POINTS, ALMOST ALL ARE
SOLID AT ROOM TEMP
2.1.4 MALLEABLE & CONDUCT HEAT &
2.1.5 REGULAR CRYSTAL
2.1.7 SHINY SURFACE
2.1.8 DO NOT DISSOLVE
2.2 GIANT IONIC
2.2.1 REGULAR 3D ARRANGEMENT
2.2.2 STRONG ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION BETWEEN POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
2.2.3 HIGH MELTING POINTS, ALWAYS SOLID AT ROOM TEMP
2.2.4 CONDUCT ELECTRICITY WHEN MOLTEN AND IN
2.2.5 SODIUM CHLORIDE
188.8.131.52 SALT - Is made up from sodium and chloride. Sodium becomes a positive
ion because it loses an electron and gives chlorine which becomes a
negative ion. Then the negative and positive ions attract each other.
2.3 SIMPLE COVALENT STRUCTURE
2.3.1 ISOLATED MOLECULES WITH WEAK
FORCES BETWEEN MOLECULES