CHEMISTRY 2A

Jaden.victoria
Mind Map by Jaden.victoria, updated more than 1 year ago
Jaden.victoria
Created by Jaden.victoria about 4 years ago
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GCSE Science Mind Map on CHEMISTRY 2A, created by Jaden.victoria on 03/25/2016.
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CHEMISTRY 2A
1 BONDING
1.1 IONIC COMPOUND
1.1.1 NON-METALS
1.1.1.1 Lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest energy level and become positively charged ions
1.1.2 METALS
1.1.2.1 Gain electron, or electrons, from another atom to become negatively charged ions
1.1.3 PROPERTIES
1.1.3.1 SOLID- at room temperature amd have a high melting and boiling point. This is because strong forces of attraction because of oppositely charged ions.
1.1.3.2 CONDUCT ELECTRICITY - when molten or dissovled (NOT SOLID). This is because the ions are free to move and carry an electrical charge. They are usually SOLUBLE IN WATER. Water has a positive and negative end, so ionic ions can attract and dissolve.
1.1.4 FOR EXAMPLE
1.1.5 Have giant ionic lattices in which there are strong electrostatic forces in all directions between oppositely charged ions. These compounds have high melting and boiling points because of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds.
1.2 COVALENT BONDING
1.2.1 A covalent bond is a strong bond between two non-metal atoms. It consists of a shared pair of electrons. When non-metals react together they need to gain electrons to fill their outer shell and become stable.
1.2.1.1 FOR EXAMPLE: Carbon has 4 electrons on its outer shell. Hydrogen has 1 electron. Hydrogen shares its electrons and makes Carbon have a full outer shell. Carbon now has 8 electrons on its outer shell (FULL). This creates Methane.
1.2.2 WEAK INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
1.2.3 FORCES ARE VERY STRONG
2 STRUCTURES
2.1 METALLIC BONDING
2.1.1 POSITIVE IONS SURROUNDED BY DELOCALISED ELECTRONS
2.1.2 STRONG ATTRACTION BETWEEN IONS AND DELOCALISED ELECTRONS
2.1.3 HIGH MELTING POINTS, ALMOST ALL ARE SOLID AT ROOM TEMP
2.1.4 MALLEABLE & CONDUCT HEAT & ELECTRICITY
2.1.5 REGULAR CRYSTAL ARRANGEMENT
2.1.6 SODIUM
2.1.7 SHINY SURFACE
2.1.8 DO NOT DISSOLVE
2.2 GIANT IONIC STRUCTURE
2.2.1 REGULAR 3D ARRANGEMENT
2.2.2 STRONG ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION BETWEEN POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IONS
2.2.3 HIGH MELTING POINTS, ALWAYS SOLID AT ROOM TEMP
2.2.4 CONDUCT ELECTRICITY WHEN MOLTEN AND IN SOLUTION
2.2.5 SODIUM CHLORIDE
2.2.5.1 SALT - Is made up from sodium and chloride. Sodium becomes a positive ion because it loses an electron and gives chlorine which becomes a negative ion. Then the negative and positive ions attract each other.
2.3 SIMPLE COVALENT STRUCTURE
2.3.1 ISOLATED MOLECULES WITH WEAK FORCES BETWEEN MOLECULES
2.3.2 LOW MELTING POINTS - GASES & LIQUIDS ATROOM TEMP
2.3.3 DON'T CONDUCT ELECTRICITY
2.3.3.1 BECAUSE THEY DON'T HAVE FREE ELECTRONS TO CARRY THE ELECTRICITY THROUGH
2.3.4 STRONG BONDS - SHARE ELECTRONS
2.3.4.1
2.4 GIANT COVALENT STRUCTURE
2.4.1 MOST DON'T CONDUCT ELECTRICITY EXPECT GRAPHITE
2.4.1.1 BECAUSE GRAPHITE HAS A FREE ELECTRON TO CARRY ELECTRICITY THROUGH
2.4.2 HIGH MELTING POINTS - SOLID AT ROOM TEMP
2.4.3 DIAMOND
2.4.4 REPEATING 3D STRUCTURE
3 CALCULATIONS
3.1 RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS
3.1.1 MASS OF ALL THE ELEMENTS IN THE COMPOUND ADDED TOGETHER
3.2 PERCENTAGE OF AN ELEMENT IN A COMPOUND
3.2.1 MASS OF ELEMENT / MR
3.3 MOLES = MASS / MR
3.3.1 GRAMS
3.4 YIELD
3.4.1 PY % = ACTUAL YIELD (G) / PREDICTED YIELD (G) X 100
3.4.2 WILL ALWAYS BE LESS THAN 100% BECAUSE PRODUCT WILL BE LOST IN
3.4.2.1 FILTERATION, EVAPORATION, TRANSFERRING LIQUIDS & HEATING
3.4.3 HIGH YIELD IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE
3.4.3.1 REDUCE WASTE, LESS RAW MATIERALS, LESS ENERGY & INCREASE PROFIT
4 MOLECULE
4.1 When atoms bond together they can form new particles consisting of several atoms.
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