How did the Cold War develop? (1944-53)

Tom Eustice
Mind Map by Tom Eustice, updated more than 1 year ago
Tom Eustice
Created by Tom Eustice about 4 years ago
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A-Level History (Cold War) Mind Map on How did the Cold War develop? (1944-53), created by Tom Eustice on 03/25/2016.

Resource summary

How did the Cold War develop? (1944-53)
1 Yalta Conference (Feb 1945)
1.1 A discussion (pre-war end) to sort out what's going to happen after the War ends; Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met in Russia.
1.1.1 Agreements/Successes
1.1.1.1 Photographed together and met up (cooperation)
1.1.1.1.1 Agreed strategy for rest of War and set up UN
1.1.1.1.1.1 Set up interim governments with elections in governmentless countries; agree elections should be 'democratic'
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 USSR should have 'influence' in Europe
1.1.2 Disagreements/Failures
1.1.2.1 No agreement on liberated country borders (e.g. Poland)
1.1.2.1.1 No agreement on who should pay reparations
1.1.2.1.1.1 No agreement on how Germany should be split up
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 USSR and US/UK had different definitions of 'democracy' and 'influence'
2 Victory in Europe Day (VE Day) (8th May 1945)
2.1 Formal acceptance from the allies that Germany had surrendered, marked Hitler's suicide, his successor Donitz authorised the surrender. End of war acknowledgement signed in France on May 7th and Germany on May 8th. No longer a common enemy between USSR and USA.
3 Potsdam Conference (17th July - 2nd August 1945)
3.1 Stalin and the new US and UK president/prime minister (Truman and Atlee) met in Germany, but there was no longer a common enemy after WWII had finished.
3.1.1 Agreements/Successes
3.1.1.1 They met up which shows cooperation
3.1.1.1.1 Both happy about winning WWII
3.1.1.1.1.1 Agreements on how to disarm Germany
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Agreements on how to bring Nazi war governments to trial
3.1.2 Disagreements/Failures
3.1.2.1 Russia already set up communist interim governments before elections
3.1.2.1.1 USSR started taking reparations forcefully from liberated countries
3.1.2.1.1.1 Stalin dismantling the infrastructure of liberated countries and used it for Russia's use (didn't help liberated countries)
3.1.2.1.1.1.1 USA still had the atomic bomb which Russia was scared of
4 Hiroshima Bomb Attack (6th August 1945)
4.1 Marked the end of WWII, showed the US were not afraid to use their nuclear weapons. It highlighted the importance of nuclear weapons and how effective they could be (immediate surrender). Stalin was unaware bomb was going to be used, despite Potsdam Conference 4 days before. Worried USSR as they didn't know if US were going to use them and they had no defence (no atomic bomb themselves)
5 Victory over Japan Day (VJ Day) (2nd Sept 1945)
5.1 Instant surrender shows powerfulness of atomic bomb in sorting out situations. Worried USSR and it was essential that USSR matched the weapons of the USA for their own defence.
6 Iron Curtain Speech (5th March 1946)
6.1 Speech given by Churchill, ex-PM, explaining his feelings about how an iron curtain has descended across Europe which separated the communists from the capitalists (East/West). Described capitalists as 'us' and communists as 'them'. Stalin had made sorrowing countries communist.
6.1.1 Stalin made surrounding counties communist by putting communist politicians in key positions, forcing left-wing parties to merge with communist parties, through accusations of manipulation, threats at elections and ballot box tampering and 2mil European soldiers were communist, ensuring communism ran smoothly.
7 Greece Civil War begins (10th Sept 1946)
7.1 A right-left civil war due to growing communist support. UK wanted to intervene but couldn't afford it, USA funded help to maintain capitalism.
8 Kennan's Long Telegram (Feb 1947)
8.1 Keenan was an important and well-respected diplomat in the American Embassy in Russia. He sent a telegram to Washington warning to the US of Russia's intervention and the threat of communism. Warns that the USSR is violently expansionist and says communism cannot be trusted and Russia sees no way of peace.
9 Truman Doctrine begins (March 1947)
9.1 The foundation of the US' Cold War foreign policy set out by Truman. Following the Greece civil war, it moved the US foreign policy from laissez faire (anti-interference) to containment (stopping/reducing USSR expansion). It did this by providing financial support and aid to anti-communist movements (for example in Greece).
10 Marshall Plan established (June 1947)
10.1 WHY?
10.1.1 Thought up by George C Marshall, the plan aimed to give European countries aid and get them to side with democracy/capitalism. The USA spent $17bn ($170bn today) to rebuild western economies.
10.2 WHAT IT INVOLVED
10.2.1 The US gave aid in the form of food, resources, equipment, machinery, fertilisers, mules (for farming) and money,
10.3 HOW IT CAUSED TENSION
10.3.1 Stalin denied communist countries to apply for aid (e.g. Czechoslovakia) so it meant countries had to choose between communism/capitalism. Yugoslavia emerged from the iron Curtain as a result.
11 Communist coup in Czechoslovakia (Feb 1948)
11.1 Czechoslovakia was the only country left in Eastern Europe and elections were due. Communists staged a coup d'etat (violent/illegal takeover) and the country received no Marshall aid which was blamed on the communists. Despite the fact communists were expected to do badly, they took over illegally and the only non-communist leader left in the country, Jan Masaryk, fell from a window and there is debate over if it was suicide or murder.
12 Berlin Blockade launched (June 1948)
12.1 Berlin split into 4 sections and West Berlin was capitalist, in a sea of communism. Stalin blockaded this section and blocked canals, roads and rail networks. The West launched the Berlin Airlift and lifted 9,000 tonnes of supplies a day. Soviets did not interfere with this and the blockade was lifted in Spring 1949, but the Airlift continued until September due to fear of reinstatement of blockade. The blockade made the USSR look cruel and capitalists look willing to help and a kinder system of rule.
13 NATO established (April 1949)
13.1 A mutual defence plan between Western Europe, US and Canada. Agreements against communism signed which put pressure on USSR. It marked cooperation and unity against communism, and was followed by the Warsaw Pact in 1955 which was essentially the same pact between countries on the east of the Iron Curtain.
14 Berlin Blockade lifted (May 1949)
14.1 Lifting the Berlin Blockade occurred but Airlift continued until September through fear the blockade would be reinstated. Made USSR look harsh and capitalists look kinder.
15 Soviet Atomic Test (August 1st 1949)
15.1 The Soviet tested an atomic bomb which marked the start of the arms race, the USA were no longer as militarily advanced as they were before.
16 Communist takeover in China (Sept 1949)
16.1 Supports the domino theory and communism was spreading. China was a massive country with masses of communism support. Heightened tensions.
17 Sino-Soviet Alliance (1950)
17.1 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance was signed. Further put pressure on USA as two big nations working together against capitalism.
18 Korean War begins (25th June 1950)
18.1 Soviet funded communism help and Stalin encouraged Mao to get involved. War still not finished today and Korea is split. Showed more evidence in support of domino theory and further increases tensions as USA were unable to stop communism spread to North Korea.
19 Death of Stalin (5th March 1953)
19.1 Stalin died which caused the post-Stalin thaw. Relaxation of tensions but did not mean there was no tension. Still fundamental ideological differences.
20 Ceasefire agreed in Korea (27th July 1953)
20.1 No treaty signed, still at war today and established communist power which still stands today.
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