The Acidic Environment

madi.stewardson
Mind Map by madi.stewardson, updated more than 1 year ago
madi.stewardson
Created by madi.stewardson about 4 years ago
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Description

year 12 Chemistry Mind Map on The Acidic Environment, created by madi.stewardson on 03/28/2016.

Resource summary

The Acidic Environment
1 Indicators
1.1 Bromothymol blue (yellow)6.2-7.6(blue) -Methyl orange (red)3.1-4.4(yellow) -phenolphthalein (colourless)8.3-10.0(pink)
2 pH of oxides
2.1 non-metal oxides- acidic
2.2 metal oxides- basic
2.3 amphoteric- can be both eg. H2O
3 Le Chatelier’s Principle
3.1 counteract any change in equilbrium
4 oxide production
4.1 sulfur oxides
4.1.1 volcanoes-burning of fossil fuels - smelting metal ores
4.2 nitrogen oxides
4.2.1 lightning- vechicles
5 acid rain
5.1 pH <5 - SO or NO in H2O

Annotations:

  • SO2(g) + H2O(l) -&gt; H2SO3(aq) 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) -&gt; HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq) 2H2SO3(aq) + O2(g) -&gt; 2H2SO4(aq) 2HNO2(aq) + O2(g) -&gt; 2HNO3(aq)
5.2 effects
5.2.1 kill aquatic ecosystem -leeches minerals needed for plants -erodes buildings
6 acids
6.1 weak
6.1.1 1-99% ionised - CH3COOH (ethonoic acid - C6O7H8 (citric acid)
6.2 strong
6.2.1 100% ionised -HCl - H2SO4
7 pH = -log10[H+]
8 %ionisation = [H+] divide [acid] x 100
9 History
9.1 Lavosier- acid oxygen
9.2 Davy- replaceable hydrogen
9.3 Arrhenius- H+ and OH-
9.4 Bronsted and Lowry- acid proton donor base proton accepter
10 Conjugate acid/base
10.1 molecules related by the loss or gain of a proton eg. H20 (acid) and H30+ (conjugate base(accepted))
11 neutralisation reactions
11.1 salt based on stronger acid/base -strong+strong=neutral salt + H2O
12 Buffer
12.1 weak acid and conjugate base eg. HCO3- and CO3 2-
12.2 used in blood, minimises pH change
13 Titration
13.1 reacting a solution of unknown concentration with a standard
13.2 method

Annotations:

  • (1) Choose indicator which has an end point suitable to equivalence point (2) Rinse glassware with distilled water, and then with the acid/base (3) Wash conical flask with distilled water (4) Fill 25mL pipette with aliquot of standard solution in volumetric flask (5) Add 3 drops of indicator to the flask (6) Fill burette with titrant, using dropper to add the final volumes (7) Assemble retort stand and equipment appropriately (8) Titrate with the left hand and swirl with right. Repeat 3 times for accuracy.
14 acids in food
14.1 -flavour enhancers -preservative -anti-oxidant
15 carbon dioxide
15.1 high pressure- CO2 gas dissolves
15.2 temperature - dissolving of gas is exothermic
15.3 Acidity- acid would create more CO2 gas
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