1.1 Drinking water was
collected from rivers or
storage pits, which were
often next to cesspits, which
is where people went to the
2.1 Without public
were much dirtier
than roman ones.
2.2 During 5th and 6th
centuries, Britain was taken
over by the angles and
Saxons who couldn't read
and were not interested in
Galen, baths or sewer
3.1 Pigs and chickens
roamed the streets.
Rats and mice
streets that were full
of rotting fish bones,
animal dung, food
waste and human
sheep and geese
were butchered in
the streets ready for
4 Decline of Public Health
4.1 All roman engineers left
meaning the knowledge
was lost of how to keep
4.2 War: Invading tribes
destroyed public health
systems and burned Galen's
books. It also made travel
dangerous, so doctors could
not gain experience or an
4.3 Kings: They believed
their job was to fight
wars, not spend taxes on
5 Problems and solutions to Medieval towns
5.1 Improvement to medieval towns:
Cesspit. By 1200 stone was being
used to build foundations for buildings
and to line the cesspits, which reduced
the amount of faeces leaking into the
5.2 Problem: People dropped litter
and faeces in the street.
Solution: Small number of
rakers were employed to clean
the streets, but not enough.
5.3 Problem: Open sewers ran through the streets.
Solution: Building of public toilets but were not
looked after well enough.
5.4 Problem: Animals were butchered in the
streets and butchers dumped rotting animal
meat into rivers. Solution: Laws to punish
those breaking the rules but there were only a
few officials to enforce the punishments.
5.4.1 This solution didn't work because
councils did not have enough money
or officials to be able to enforce the
laws and knew people wouldn't pay
the taxes to clean the streets.
5.5 Why solutions didn't work: The king
collected taxes for fighting wars, not
improving public health; he didn't see it as
5.6 Why solutions didn't work:
Ordinary people wouldn't
pay taxes to improve public
health as they believed that
god caused disease.
6.1 Herbal remedies: Many cures were passed down from
generation, they were used because it made people feel
better E.G Honey was used for sore throats.
6.2 Religious beliefs: People believed that god
caused disease, therefore, people in the middle
ages would pray to god if they were ill, they may
also carry a charm, or consult astrologers to look
at the planets.
7.1 Galens work continued to influence medicine. Rich people might consult physicians who would prescribe
treatment based on Galens books. Usually bloodletting or purging, based on the story of the opposites and the
8 Training of doctors
8.1 The training of doctors saw little change from the roman era to the start of the middle ages. It was based on
reading books or working with a successful doctor. Monastries and convents later became centres of learning
until 12th and 13th centuries when universities were set up to train doctors.
9 Places for treatment.
9.1 Hospitals: Usually run by monks and nuns as part of their Christian duties. Their work was based
on care rather than cure as they believed that god caused disease, therefore people with infectious
diseases were not admitted. Beds were positioned so the patients could see the altar; religious
statues and images on stained glass windows to help them focus on religion and be healed.
9.2 Almshouses: Places where the 'deserving' poor and old could rest,
not intended to be hospitals but people were cared for whilst there.
9.3 Leperhouses: These were set up to isolate those with leprosy
away from healthy people, no treatment was available.