1.3.3 Job Enrichment: A: Employees text
& develop managerial skills. D:
Higher training costs& difficult
balancing work responsibility.
1.4 Empowering Employees
1.4.1 Adv.: Enhance
spirit& free's senior
management time. /
Dis: Training &
education in decision
making, role of
1.5.1 Adv: More satisfaction on
productivity, lean skills
from others, easier
responsibility to team. /
Dis: Productivity falls to
weakest member, more
those with potential may
be overlooked, team
success over business.
1.6.1 Taylor: Everyone works for
money = Piece rate
1.6.2 Mayo: People work if thy feel
valued = social interaction.
1.6.3 Maslow: Hierarchy of needs,
suggested: we work up the
needs, safety, social, esteem
1.6.4 Herzburg: Hygiene
factors & motivators.
2 Developing an Effective
2.1 Key Terminology:
2.1.1 Recruitment & Selection Process: How a
business chooses the best candidate.
2.1.2 Job Description: Summary of main duties
associated in the role.
2.1.3 Person Specification: Identifies the skills,
knowledge & experience a successful
applicant will have.
2.1.4 Internal Recruitment: Candidates selected
from inside the organisation.
2.1.5 External Recruitment: Candidates selected
from outside the organisation.
2.1.6 Methods of Selection: How businesses
recruits the best candidate for a vacancy.
Can be internal or external. Dependent on
time, budge & skill.
2.1.7 Training: Giving employees the knowledge,
skills & techniques to fulfil requirements.
2.1.8 Induction Training: Initial preparation for a
post. Good to give skills from experienced
2.1.9 Off-the-job Training: Away from place of
work. e.g. College/Training Centre.
2.1.10 On-the-job Training: Learning on the job,
under guidance of experienced staff.
2.2 The Recruitment
2.2.1 Job Description
18.104.22.168 Job Titile
2.2.2 Person Specification
22.214.171.124 Job Specified
2.2.3 Why Job
2.2.4 EXTERNAL Vs. INTERNAL
126.96.36.199 Int: Promotion/Transfer
188.8.131.52.1 Ad: Cheaper/Ltd. time to
complete/motivate employees. / Dis.
Another vacancy to be filled/ideas
generation may stagnate.
184.108.40.206.1 Ad. Bigger Choice =Better chance to match
specification & more ideas. / Dis. Expensive &
Time Consuming - Induction training required.
2.3 Can R&S improve
2.3.1 Audit of skills needed to make
specification & description, enabling
them to find the right person. If this is
too vague/misleading, dissatisfaction &
frustration for employer & employee.
2.4 The Selection Process
2.4.1 Methods of Selection
220.127.116.11 Work Samples
18.104.22.168 Peer Assessments
22.214.171.124 Assessment Centre
126.96.36.199 Psychometric Tests
2.4.2 Factors to Consider
2.5.1 OFF THE JOB: Ad. Specialist staff &
facilities/employees focus on training & not
work distracted/Mix with businesses =
support. / Dis. Employee needs learn
motivation/may not be directly
2.5.2 ON THE JOB: Ad. Direct
managers to assess
as learning/more cost
effective. / Dis. Requires skill &
3.1.1 Workforce Performance: Methods of measuring
effectiveness of employees, inc. labour
productivity, staff turnover & absenteeism.
3.1.2 Labour Turnover: % of total workforce who
leave in a year.
3.1.3 Labour Productivity: Output per employee over
given time period.
3.1.4 Absenteeism: No. of working days lost as a
result of absent employees.
3.2 Labour Turnover
3.2.1 'Classified into 2 types': 1. Voluntary:
Employee leaves for personal
reasons. 2. Involuntary: Referring to
dismissal or redundancy.
3.3 Labour Productivity
3.3.1 'Commonly measured by': 1.
Output per employee (See LP
formula). 2. Labour cost per
unit of output & UK
Productivity (See Formulas).
188.8.131.52 We calculate productivity because...
1. A business must ensure they are
using resources efficiently. 2. If
output per employee is falling,
these is room for efficiency.
3.4.1 High rising absenteeism represents costs = It should be
investigated. (See Formula).
4.1 Key Terminology
4.1.1 Organisational Structure: The way jobs,
responsibilities & power are organised in a
4.1.2 Organisational Chart: Diagram showing job titles,
line of responsibility & communication
4.1.3 Lines of Hierarchy: No. of layers of management
& supervision existing in a business.
4.1.4 Chains of Command: Lines of authority in a
4.1.5 Lines of Communication: How information is
based up, down & access an organisation.
4.1.6 Span of Control: No. of subordinates, one
job/post-holder is responsible for.
4.1.7 Workload: How much work
one-employee/team/department have to
complete in a given time.
4.1.8 Job Role: Tasks involved in a particular role.
4.1.9 Delegation: Passing authority to make specific
decisions further down the hierarchy.
4.1.10 Communication Flows: How information is
passed around an organisation. e.g. downwards,
upwards, sideways or through the grapevine.
4.1.11 Workforce Role: The tasks involved in a particular
level or grade of job within an organisation.
4.2 Organisational Chart
4.2.1 Features: Responsibility/Authority - Decision Making,
Job titles/roles & persons name, Lines of authority -
employees accountable for & responsible for, Lines of
communication through business.
184.108.40.206 Owners must take account for:
Business Environment (Commutative
market/costs/up-to-date? etc.), Skills
of Employees (Small no./highly
trained Vs. larger no.-unskilled),
Culture of Organisation (Market
share from originality/design).
220.127.116.11.1 Key Elements: 1. Levels
of Hierarchy. 2. Span of
Control. 3. Work
4.3 Improving OS to
4.3.1 Cutting Overheads /
Revising Workloads /
Growth of Business /
Responding to Market
Conditions / Ownership
Changes / Customer
Needs / Entrepreneurial