B1.1 Keeping Healthy

 ELeanor Turner
Mind Map by ELeanor Turner, updated more than 1 year ago
 ELeanor Turner
Created by ELeanor Turner almost 4 years ago
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GCSE Biology Mind Map on B1.1 Keeping Healthy, created by ELeanor Turner on 04/12/2016.

Resource summary

B1.1 Keeping Healthy
1 Diet and Exercise
1.1 Healthy diet
1.1.1 Right balance of the different foods you need and the right amount of energy
1.1.1.1 Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
1.1.1.1.1 Release energy
1.1.1.1.2 Build cells
1.1.1.2 Vitamins and mineral ions
1.1.1.2.1 Small amounts
1.1.2 Malnourished
1.1.2.1 Diet is not balanced
1.1.2.2 Overweight
1.1.2.3 Underweight
1.1.2.4 Deficiency diseases
1.1.2.4.1 Type 2 diabetes
1.2 Exercise
1.2.1 Lose mass when the energy content taken in is less than the amount of energy expended
1.2.1.1 Exercise increases amount of energy expended
1.2.2 Makes healthier
1.3 Metabolic rate
1.3.1 Rate at which chemical reactions in the cells take place
1.3.1.1 Inherited factors
1.3.1.1.1 Also affects health, e.g. cholesterol level
1.3.1.2 Amount of exercise
1.3.1.3 Proportion of muscle to fat in your body
2 Defence against infectious disease
2.1 Pathogens
2.1.1 Bacteria and virus
2.1.1.1 Reproduce rapidly
2.1.1.2 Produce toxins
2.1.2 Immune system
2.1.2.1 White blood cells
2.1.2.1.1 Ingest pathogens
2.1.2.1.2 Produce antibodies
2.1.2.1.2.1 Destroy particular bacteria or viruses
2.1.2.1.2.2 Specific antibodies made
2.1.2.1.2.2.1 Production of specific antibodies stimulated if the same pathogen is detected in the future
2.1.2.1.2.3 Lead to immmunity
2.1.2.1.3 Produce antitoxins
2.1.2.1.3.1 Counteract toxins
2.2 Semmelweis
2.2.1 Recognised importance of hand washing
2.2.1.1 Insisted doctors washed their hands before examining patients
2.2.1.1.1 Greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious disease in his hospital
2.3 Treatments
2.3.1 Painkillers
2.3.1.1 Relieve symptoms, do not kill the pathogens
2.3.2 Antibiotics
2.3.2.1 Penecillin
2.3.2.2 Kill bacteria
2.3.2.3 Can't kill viruses
2.3.2.3.1 Viruses live and reproduce inside cells
2.3.2.3.1.1 Can't kill without destroying cell too
2.3.2.4 Overuse and inappropriate use increases antibiotic resistance
2.3.2.4.1 Result of natural selection
2.3.2.4.1.1 Mutations
2.3.2.4.1.1.1 New strains
2.3.2.4.1.1.1.1 Pathogens with the resistant strain survive and reproduce
2.3.2.4.1.1.1.1.1 Population of resistant strain increases
2.3.2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Now used mainly for non-serious infections to slow down the rate of developing resistant strains
2.3.2.4.1.1.1.2 Necessitates the development of new antibiotics
2.3.3 Vaccinations
2.3.3.1 Introduction of a small quantity of a dead or inactive pathogen into the body
2.3.3.1.1 Stimulates production of antibodies
2.3.3.1.1.1 Destroy the pathogen
2.3.3.1.1.2 Immune to further infections by that microorganism
2.3.3.1.1.2.1 Body can rapidly respond and reproduce the antibodies needed as they are already made
2.3.3.2 MMR
2.4 Cultures
2.4.1 Kept at 25 degrees celsuis
2.4.2 Investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics
2.4.2.1 Petri dishes and culture media must be sterilised
2.4.2.1.1 Inoculating loops used to transfer microorganisms to the media, need to be sterilised by passing through flame
2.4.2.1.1.1 Lid secured with adhesive tape to prevent contamination
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