Approaches

Pip Mooney
Mind Map by Pip Mooney, updated more than 1 year ago
Pip Mooney
Created by Pip Mooney over 5 years ago
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Mind map of approaches

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Approaches
  1. The origins
    1. Wilhelm Wundt
      1. Established experimental psychology as a science
        1. by breaking down behaviours into basic elements
          1. Introspection was method of study
        2. Emergence of psychology as a science
          1. scientific psychology used empirical methods
            1. Assumptions of determinism and predictability
              1. Methods are objective, systematic and replicable
            2. + objective and systematic methods, determines cause and effect relationship - Unreliable (relied on non observable responses, introspective not particularly accurate
            3. Behaviourist
              1. Classical conditioning
                1. Pavlov researched salive reflex in dogs
                  1. Dogs could be conditioned to salivate to a bell, associated with food
                    1. Neutral stimulus (bell) can learn a new response (CR) through association
                  2. Learning through association
                    1. + CC lead to development of treatments for anxiety due to phobias - relationship between CS and UCS are difficult to establish in different species.
                    2. Operant conditioning
                      1. Skinner researched rats learning through an active process
                        1. + Reinforcement is receiving reward for certain behaviour
                          1. - Reinforcement is animal avoids something unpleasant
                            1. Punishment is unpleasant consequence of behaviour
                            2. + uses scientific methods - Skinner used non-human animals
                          2. Social Learning theory
                            1. Modelling is a form of learning where someone learns a behaviour by observing someone else doing it
                              1. Imitation is when someone uses someone else as a model and copies their behaviour
                                1. Identification is when someone is influences by someone else and adopts a behaviour because they want to be associated with them
                                  1. Vicarious reinforcement is indirect learning by someone observing the behaviour of others
                                    1. Role of mediation processes focuses on how mental factors are involved in learning
                                      1. Key Study: Bandura et al ('61 Bobo doll)
                                        1. Half a group of children saw a video with an aggressive adult model
                                          1. Other half saw non violent video
                                          2. Found children who saw violent video were physically and verbally aggressive
                                          3. + Increase understanding on human behaviour Akers - someone committing crime modelling criminals - Its complex because of genes, environmental factors and media
                                          4. Cognitive
                                            1. Study of internal mental processes
                                              1. Can't be studied directly
                                                1. Schemas help organise and interpret information - they fill gaps
                                                  1. Theoretical models are simplified representation based on current evidence
                                                    1. Computer models analogies information processing where information is inputted through senses, encoded into memory
                                                    2. Emergence of cognitive neuroscience
                                                      1. The scientific study of the influence of brain structures on mental processes
                                                        1. Key Study: Burnett et al, when people feel guilt, medial prefrontal cortex is active
                                                        2. + Cognitive approach has application and is scientific - Many differences between computer processing and human processing, it ignores emotion and motivation is irrelevant to computer
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