Tropical Rainforests

williamsedgwick
Mind Map by williamsedgwick, updated more than 1 year ago
williamsedgwick
Created by williamsedgwick about 6 years ago
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GCSE geography (living world) Mind Map on Tropical Rainforests, created by williamsedgwick on 02/01/2014.
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Tropical Rainforests
1 where are they found
1.1 Tropical Rainforests are found on and around the Equator between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The largest area of Tropical Rainforest is in the north of the continent South America, in countries such as Ecuador, Peru, Columbia and Brazil. The rest of the Tropical Rainforest is in two main areas; central Africa in countries such as Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the island of Indonesia in Oceania. the largest of which is the islands of Indonesia.
2 plant adaptations
2.1 drip tip leaves
2.1.1 they allow rain to fall off of the leaves with out breaking them
2.2 buttress roots
2.2.1 large roots on all sides of a shallow rooted tree or to hold up a the bigger trees
2.3 lianas
2.3.1 a climbing vine that climbs up trees to reach the light. supports other trees
2.4 epiphites
2.4.1 grows up another plant non parasitically they have a head start on other plants at getting to sunlight
2.5 saprophites
2.5.1 organisms that gets its nutrients from dead or decaying organisms. they don't photosynthesis so they can survive without sunlight
3 climate
3.1 HOT 25-27C all year round. WET rainfall varies between 350mm in May to 210mm in October
4 layers of the rainforest
4.1 canopy
4.1.1 50% of all species in the world. Blanket of greenery. Receives most sunlight. Dense layer of vegetation.
4.2 emergent
4.2.1 The tallest trees in the Tropical Rainforest. Usually over 40 meters tall. 100-200 feet tall.
4.3 undercanopy
4.3.1 Between 50% and 20% of sunlight. Bare tree trunks. Vines climbing the trunks in search of sunlight.
4.4 shrub
4.4.1 Densest plant layer. 5% of sunlight. Large buttress roots.
4.5 forest floor
4.5.1 2% of sunlight. Very dark and damp. Prone to flooding. Thin layer of decomposing leaves and dead animals- called litter. This forms a layer of nutrients for the trees.
5 uses
5.1 rubber tapping
5.1.1 63,000 people earn a living supplying rubber to Brazil. it is sustainable and the workers benefit because you cut out the middle man
5.2 mineral extraction
5.2.1 gold, copper and diamonds can be found underneath the rainforest. cyanide is used to extract the minerals. huge craters are left behind that are filled with chemicals. stories of huge riches being made drive lots of people into this industry.
5.3 farming- palm oil
5.3.1 50% of packed products in supermarkets contain palm oil. they burn the rainforest down then grow palm oil trees. this reduces the bio divercity of the land and destroys lots of habitats
5.4 cattle ranching
5.4.1 60% of land that is cleared is for cattle ranching. brazil is the biggest exporter of beef in the world.it is a multi billion dollarindustry
5.5 slash and burn
5.5.1 1/3 of deforestation is caused this way. 2 acres of land is destroyed every second, so within a 100 years we may not have any tropical rainforests
5.6 road building
5.6.1 the trans-American highway is 2500 miles long. it goes from Peru's Pacific coast to Brazil's Atlantic coast brings jobs and trade but leaves destruction in its wake.
6 consequences
6.1 loss of wildlife
6.2 loss of medicines
6.3 impact on tribes people
6.4 soil erosion
6.5 decrease in soil fertility
6.6 decrease in hardwood
6.7 carbon dioxide and oxygen balance
6.8 minerals and HEP
7 sustainable development
7.1 replanting
7.1.1 can only chop down 20% of their land rather than 50. ranchers being made to replant up to 30% of their land
7.2 selective logging
7.2.1 more sustainable. less damage to rainforest. using elephants no machines.forest not neaded to be cleared. machinery only used in transport
7.3 conservation
7.3.1 trees need to be certified before they are used so no logs from illegal logging are used
7.4 ecotourism
7.4.1 Parque Amazonia
7.4.1.1 19,000 acres along the guama river. 13,000 of the acres is rainforest. all developments limited to 1,900 acres on open land that has already bean deforested in the 1800's. it is 20miles from Belem in Brazil, home to 1 million people. it offers big opportunities for rainforest exploration and education. it opened its doors to the public in 1995.
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