1.1 Data must be kept safe and secure from loss or
accidental damage when being stored or
transmitted by computing devices.
1.2 Keeping data secure means preventing
unauthorised users from accessing the data.
1.3 Data can be kept safe by:
1.3.1 Saving work regularly
1.3.2 Never working on the only
copy of the work
1.3.3 Shutting down the computer
1.3.4 Storing storage media such
as CDs and other removable
1.4 Data can be kept secure by:
1.4.1 Physically protecting the data
1.4.2 Encrypting the data
1.4.3 Using passwords to control
access to the data
1.5 Many organisations use backups and secure
storage methods to safeguard their data by using
passwords for access and by encrypting stored or
transmitted data. The proper use of backups can
also help to keep data safe and secure.
2 Access rights and permissions
2.1 All files and folders have access rights
and permissions to control who can read,
edit and save the file.
2.2 Organisations can control which files
people are allowed to look at by setting
different access permissions to the file.
2.3 Files and folders can be protected by setting the
access rights to read-only so that the files cannot
be altered. Individual documents can have
passwords so that only authorised staff can open
the file to read and/or edit the contents.
2.4 Passwords can be set for whole documents or parts of the
document only eg. in spreadsheets, an office worker may be
allowed to enter data about prices but not be allowed to
change the formulas.
3 Physical Security
3.1 Using security guards to protect physical goods in supermarkets
3.2 Posting guards at doors of offices where the computers are used
or at the doors of the rooms where the data is stored on
3.3 Having electronic security locks that need a code to open
3.4 Using RFID tags in staff badges to keep out unauthorised people
3.4.1 Badges with RFID tags can be used to control
where staff can access; changing the data of the
tag will allow them to access different areas.
3.5 Not having the computer systems on the ground floor
with windows that can be broken to gain access
3.6 Facing computer screens away from windows,
doors and walkways to stop people seeing what
is being dislayed
3.7 Having bars or strengthened glass on windows and doors. Also strong doors
4.1 Encryption software uses an encryption code/key to
scramble the contents of data files - the proper code is
needed to unscramble (decrypt) the file so it can be read
4.2 Data is meaningless if the file is encrypted and the proper
code isn't available.
4.3 Data can be scrambled using encryption software when it is
stored or transmitted between computers over networks -
digital signatures are sued to check that a website or message I
authentic and is an example of encryption in use.
5 Secure Websites
5.1 When customers by goods or use services online,
the data should be encrypted before being
transmitted. Customers should check that the
website is using encryption before entering their
5.2 A secure website will show a small padlock and will use
https rather than http in the URL to show that encryption is