Population

elgefur
Mind Map by elgefur, updated more than 1 year ago
elgefur
Created by elgefur over 5 years ago
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Description

Advanced placement Biology Mind Map on Population, created by elgefur on 04/22/2016.

Resource summary

Population
  1. when changes within occur
    1. Microevolution
      1. evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms, especially over a short period.
    2. when the diversity of, is studied, is called
      1. Population genetics
        1. Population genetics is the study of the distribution and change in frequency of alleles within populations
      2. involves
        1. gene pool
          1. which refers to
            1. allele frequency
              1. the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
            2. the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population.
            3. Gene Flow
              1. the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another.
              2. genetic drift
                1. which can be typed as
                  1. bottleneck effect
                    1. Population bottlenecks occur when a population's size is reduced for at least one generation.
                    2. founder effect
                      1. the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors
                    3. variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
                    4. types of natural selection such as
                      1. stabilizing selection
                        1. a type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases and the population mean stabilizes on a particular trait value.
                        2. directional seletion
                          1. which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
                          2. disruptive selection
                            1. describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values.
                          3. Sexual Selection
                            1. natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex.
                          4. can be in
                            1. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
                              1. which is related to
                                1. Hardy Weinberg Principle
                                  1. Mathematical law stating that the gene frequencies in a population remain stable if evolution does not occur due to nonrandom mating, selection, migration, and genetic drift..
                                2. states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.
                              2. may become
                                1. Reproductively Isolated
                                  1. the situation where different species may live in the same area, but properties of individuals prevent them from interbreeding.
                                2. which may involve
                                  1. inbreeding
                                    1. breed from closely related people or animals, especially over many generations.
                                    2. non-random mating
                                      1. another type of which is called
                                        1. assortative mating
                                          1. a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.
                                        2. when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible pairs of individuals.
                                      2. whose traits may be
                                        1. polygenetic
                                          1. having more than one origin or source.
                                        2. A group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time
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