Human Anatomy

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Human Anatomy
1 Skeletal System
1.1 Types of Bones
1.1.1 Short Ex. Clavicle, Carpals, Tarsals
1.1.2 Long Anatomy of a Long Bone Epiphysis Cartilage (Articular/Articulating Cartilage) - Located at both ends of the long bone, allows smooth movement within joints Cancellous Bone (Begins as Fibrous Membranes) - The "Spongy Bone" is filled with marrow in its small cavity-like spaces Osteoblasts release osteoid into membrane which forms a sponge-like bundle of fibres Epiphyseal Plates "Growth Plates" - Located at various locations at the epiphyses of long bones Trabeculae -Consists of bony fibres arranged in a strut-like system, density varies Diaphysis Medullary Cavity - Located inside bone shaft (cortex), filled with red marrow "Hematopoisis" (blood cell formation) and yellow marrow "Adipose" (fat cells and connective tissue) Compact Bone (Begins As Cartilage) - The dense part of the bone responsible for its structural intergrity Osteoblasts discharge osteoid into the deposited minerals to form the hardened material known as bone Cortex - Exterior layer of bone is dense/smooth and varying in thickness Periosteum - Outer connective tissue, connect bone-to-bone/bone-to-muscle (Direct Connection) Ex. Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Tibia, Fibula, Femur,
1.1.3 Flat Commonly Found In The Skull Ex. Frontal Bone, Parietal Bone, Occipital Bone, Sternum, Ribs
1.1.4 Irregular DIAGRAM On theses bones are... Bone Landmarks Ridges, Bumps, Grooves, Depressions, and Prominences found on bones These Landmarks have Serveral Functions Passage of Blood Vessels & Nerves Attachments Tendons Insertion Origin Proximal Distal - The Articular System - (Joints Between Bones) Fibrous Joints Allow For No Movement Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints Allow For A Lot of Movement Ball-and-Socket Joint Hip Gliding Joint Foot Hinge Joint Elbow Pivot Neck Saddle Thumb Ellipsoid Wrist Anatomy of a Synovial Joint DIAGRAM Articular Cartilage is also found in the Synovial Joint Descriptions of Parts in Diagram Ex. Glenoid Fossa, Coracoid Process, Greater Trochanter, Iliac Crest, Linea Aspera, etc. Commonly Found In The Vertebral Column Ex. Scapula, Vertebrae, Sacrum, Coccyx, Pelvis, Mandible,
1.1.5 Sesamoid Ex. Patella, Sesamoid Bone (Distal End of Metacarpal 1)
1.1.6 There 206 Bones in the Body! Bones are made through... Ossification Bone Remodelling Cycle DIAGRAM 1. Resorption - Osteoclasts break down minerals, bone fragments, and material creating a cavity 2. Reversal - The surface of the bone is prepared for new Osteoblasts to begin ossification 3. Formation - Osteoblasts release osteoid to replace resorbed bone with new bone 4. Resting - A prolonged resting period follows until a new remodeling cycle begins Osteoblasts: Bone-forming Cells Osteoblasts deposit osteoid which turns into bone when exposed to inorganic salts Osteoid: Gelatin-like Substance (Stem Cell) Osteoclasts: Bone-deconstructing Cells
1.2 The Role of a Skeleton
1.2.1 Structural Support
1.2.2 Protection
1.2.3 Growth Center for Cells
1.2.4 Reservoir for Minerals Calcium (Ca) Calcium binds to troponin Allows the actin and myosin proteins to interact This eventually leads to muscle contraction Phosphorus
1.2.5 Movement Movement at Joints Flexion/Extension Hip Flexion & Knee Extension Elbow Flexion through the Sagittal Plane and Around the Horizontal Axis uction Supination/Pronation Protraction/Retraction Circumduction Movement Through Planes and Axis Anatomical Planes Transverse Plane Sagittal Plane Frontal Plane Anatomical Axis Antero-posterior Axis Longitudinal Axis Horizontal Axis - Kicking a Ball - Moving through the Sagittal Plane and around the Horizontal Axis Signals to take action are sent from the leg to the Brain/Spinal Cord Agonist VS. Antagonist - Agonist - Responsible for movement of the body (Contracts/Shortens) - Antagonist - Counteracts Agonist (Shortens) Through contraction Muscles and Bones work together to cause...
1.3 Which is divided into...
1.3.1 The Axial Skeleton (80 Bones, Yellow) Which is made up of... Vertebral Column The spine is made up of 3 groups of Irregular Bones 7 Cervical Vertebrae, 12 Thoracic Vertebrae, 5 Lumbar Vertebrae Rib Cage 7 True Ribs, 3 False Ribs, 2 Floating Ribs Ribs are made up of long Flat Bones Skull The skull is made up of Flat and Irregular Bones The Appendicular Skeleton (126 Bones, Green) Which is made up of... Limbs Lower Body Limbs Thighs & Legs (8 Bones) Common Bones Types: Long & Sesamoid Bones (Patella) Feet & Ankles (52 Bones) Common Bone Types: Short Bones Upper Body Limbs Arms & Forearms (6 Bones) Common Bone Types: Long Bones Hands & Wrists (54 Bones) Common Bone Types: Short Bones Girdles Pectoral Girdle (4 Bones) 2 Clavicles, 2 Scapulas Common Bone Types: Short & Irregular Bones All Upper Limbs attach to the Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle) Pelvic Girdle (2 Bones) 2 Hip Bones, 1 Sacrum Common Bone Types: Irregular Bones All Lower Limbs attach to the Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle)
2 Muscular System
2.1 Characteristics of Muscles
2.1.1 Contractibility
2.1.2 Conductivity Muscles Receive Impulses from... Neuromuscular Junction Contains... The signal causes the Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh) to be released and received by the receptors on the Sarcolemma (surface of muscle fibre) The detected chemical results muscle contraction The Neuromusular Junction is where the Sliding Filament Theory occurs Sliding Filament Theory Calcium Ions are released into the sarcoplasm to be used for Sliding Filament Theory Fact: Muscles always pull, never push Sliding Filament Theory describes the overlapping of myosin and actin filaments to achieve contraction The process begins when a signal for action is sent to a muscle from the brain The Sarcolemma is where Neuromuscular Junction occurs... The Signal is processed and sent back to the muscle through nerves until it reaches the axions the point of Neuromuscular Junction Triggers Calcium influx Calcium bonds with Troponin The bond causes the Actin to change shape and the Tropomyosin to separate from the Actin leaving room for a Myosin Crossbridge
2.1.3 Elasticity
2.1.4 Extensibility
2.1.5 Irritablity
2.1.6 Striation Non-Striated Muscles Striated Muscles
2.2 3 Types of Muscles
2.2.1 Which Are Named For... Action/Function of the Muscle In reference to the "Movement at Joints" branch, muscles are named after movements such as "Flexion/Extension" Direction of the Fibres In reference to the "Anatomical Planes" branch, muscles are named after the direction in which their fibres run such as the Transversus Abdominus (Transverse Plane) Location of the Muscle The Anatomical Position gives us the locations at which the muslces are named For example the Tibialis Anterior and Tibialis Posterior were named after there location on the body based of the Anatomical Posistion The Anatomical Posistion Number of Heads/Divisions For example the Biceps Brachii has 2 Heads and the Triceps Brachii has 3 heads Shape of the Muscle For example the Deltoid (resembles greek letter Delta) or the Trapezius (resembles a Trapezoid) Muscle's Point of Attachment In reference to the "Bone Landmarks" branch, muscles are named after their point of attachment such the Sternocleidomastoid (Sternum + Clavicle + Mastoid Process)
2.2.2 A) Smooth Muscles Surrounds The Body's Internal Organs Esophagus Stomach Non-Striated Muscles B) Cardiac Muscles Found Only In The Heart C) Skeletal Muscles Striated Muscles Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles Starting at the Bone the Muscle Belly is attached through a Tendon The outermost layer of the muscles tissue is called the Epimysium. Under the Epimysium lies the Perimysium, surrounding bundles of large groups of muscle fibres. Those groups of muscle fibres are surrounded by the Endomysium Muscle Fibre Now on a cellular level the Sarcolemma is the muscle cell membrane Inside the Sarcolemma lies the Sarcoplasm which is the cells Cytoplasm Further inward we find repeating structural units containing Sarcomeres Sarcomere Bundles of stands called Myofibrils. They are made up of the protiens Myosin Contains Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and Inorganic Phosphate (PI) Myosin Crossbridge ADP and PI leave the Myosin causing it to contract and pull the Actin towards it (Contracting The Muscle) The ADP and PI combine to become Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) This is the energy/fuel that drives the mechanism The ATP binds to the Myosin again and pulls it away from the Actin The ATP then converts back into ADP and PI and the process repeats itself. This is a diagram of the process of contraction as described above Actin Tropomyosin Bands Troponin Receptors Skeletal Muscle Contraction Types of Muscle Contraction C) Isometric (Static) Ex. Planks, Wall Sits, etc. B) Eccentric (Lengthening) Ex. Downward part of Bench Press A) Concentric (Shortening) Ex. Biceps Curl There are also... E) Isotonic (Same Weight) Ex. Squats D) Isokinetic (Same Speed) Ex. Stationary Bike These characteristics are essential during exercise... and to exercise muscle contraction is necessary Contact through the actions conducted during Sliding Filament Theory When muscles are contacted too much and over-stressed they transfer impact to bone Calcium is the trigger for muscle contraction Contraction is triggered in 2 ways Conscious Effort Reflexes There are 3 Types of Neurons in the Body Sensory Neurons detect/sense information from the outside world, such as light, sound, touch, and heat Motor Neurons send signals away from the Central Nervous System and elicit a response, for example movement of the arms or legs Interneurons form interconnections between other neurons in the Central Nervous System. Neurons transmit information to each other through a series of connections that form a circuit An example of that kind of circuit is the... The Reflex Arc It allows organisms to respond rapidly to inputs from sensory neurons The 5 Parts To The Reflex Arc 2. The Sensory Nerve (Afferent) - Carries The Impulse to the Spinal Column of Brain 3. The Intermediate Nerve Fibre (Adjuster/Interneuron) - Interprets signal and issues an appropriate response 1. The Receptor - Receives the initial stimulus 4. The Motor Nerve (Efferent) - Carries he response message from spinal cord to muscle/organ 5. The Effector Organ Itself (Skeletal Muscle) - Carries out the response Muscle Spindles Stretch Reflex Sensory receptors within a muscle fibre the primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle Golgi Tendon Organs Tension Reflex Sensory receptors found at the end of muscle fibres that merge into the tendon itself and that detect changes in musical tension Can connect to bones Indirectly (through Tendons/Ligaments) or Directy (Membranes) Tendons and Ligaments
2.4 There are between 640 to 850 muscles in the Human Body
2.5 The Role of The Muscular System
2.5.1 Movement
2.5.2 Heat Production
2.5.3 Support of Joints to Maintain a Position
2.5.4 Support of Bones to Maintain a Position
3 Nervous System
3.1 Somatic Nervous System (Voluntary)
3.2 Automatic Nervous System (Involuntary)
3.2.1 Smooth Muscles
3.2.2 Cardiac Muscles
3.3 Neuromuscular System
3.4 Motor Units
3.4.1 Characterizing Motor Units Small Units Stimulates small amounts of muscle fibres Meant for Fine Motor Movement such as moving the eye Motor Units consist of... The Motor Neuron The Axon Pathway The Specific Muscle Fibres it Stimulates Large Units Stimulates large amounts of muscle fibres Meant for Gross Motor Movement such as the Quadriceps of the Leg Single motor unit in the Quadriceps may stimulate 300 to 800 muscle fibres Force All motor units must be recruited at the same time All-or-none Principle When a motor unit is stimulated to contract, it will do so to its fullest potential
3.4.2 - Muscle Twitch - A single nervous impulse and the resulting contraction
4 Injuries and Disease
4.1 The Body can experience many forms of stress/damage
4.2 Joint Related Problems
4.2.1 - Sprains - Occur when ligaments are over-stretched Treat sprains with PIER Pressure, Ice Elevation, and Rest There are 3 Degrees of Sprains ranging in severity
4.2.2 - Cartilage Damage - Tears made in the cartilage during sports and other vigorous activities
4.2.3 Wear, Tear, & Aging Osteoarthritis Loss of cartilage at joints exposing bones for damage Symptoms Include... Joint Pain, Tenderness, Stiffness, and Locking of Joint - Bursitis - Inflammation of bursae
4.2.4 Dislocations Displaced Ball and Socket Joints are... Ex. Humerus dislocatus from the Glenoid Fossa Bone is Displaced from its original location
4.2.5 Separations Tears in the connective tissues of a joint
4.3 Bone Related Problems
4.3.1 Fractures/Breaks - Compound Fractures - Breaks into separate pieces (often breaches skin) DIAGRAM - Comminuted Fractures - Broken ends of bone are shattered into many pieces - Simple Fractures - No Separation of bone into parts, but a break/crack is detecatable
4.3.2 Aging - Osteoporosis - A disease characterized by low bone mass and bone deterioration Leads to fractures in Hip, Spine, and Wrist - Preventing Osteoporosis - *A balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D *Weight-bearing exercise *A healthy lifestyle (no smoking, drinking, etc.) Leads to fractures in Hip, Spine, and Wrist
4.3.3 Shin Splints and Stress Fractures Stress fractures are tiny cracks in bone caused by over use/stress of muscles Shin Splints result of overuse without adequate time for recovery Shin Splints refer to pain of Medial/Lateral side of Tibia
4.4 Muscle & Tendon Related Problems
4.4.1 Muscles Rotator Cuff Tears Muscles of The Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus Subscapularis Infraspinatus Teres Minor The 4 muscles are meant to slow motion to prevent shoulder dislocation after throwing so it is common for Rotator Cuff Tears to occur during the motion of throwing improperly Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) Result of microscopic tearing deep within the muscle fibres Use R.I.C.E (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) to help with soft-tissue injuries Lasts 5-7 Days Strains & Tears 2nd Degree -Require physiotherapy treatment once diagnosed by a doctor 3rd Degree - Require surgery and rehabilitation (6-12 months) 1st Degree - Slight swelling and bruising, pain felt on the end of full range of motion
4.4.2 Tendons Tendonitis Inflammation of a tendon caused by irritation due to prolonged or abnormal use An example of this is... Tennis Elbow & Golfers Elbow Torn tendons on the Lateral and Medial sides of the Elbow Symptoms: Pain/tenderness on the tendon near/around the joint, stiffness/pain in the tendon (restricting movement), a strong pulling/sharp pain when moving a joint, and on occasion, mild swelling, numbness, or a tingling sensation at the joint Preventing: Resting, avoiding movement, protect area with splints, slings, or casts, apply ice, take oral medication, and take physical therapy
5 By: Brandon Arthur Bartlett Enarson
6 Mr. Tan - PSK4U1 08/05/2016

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