3.1-Animal cells and asexual reproduction

victoria.graham96
Mind Map by victoria.graham96, updated more than 1 year ago
victoria.graham96
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Biology Mind Map on 3.1-Animal cells and asexual reproduction, created by victoria.graham96 on 04/22/2013.
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3.1-Animal cells and asexual reproduction
1 Mitosis
1.1 Interphase
1.1.1 Prophase
1.1.1.1 Metaphase
1.1.1.1.1 Anaphase
1.1.1.1.1.1 Telophase
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Membrane reforms
1.1.1.1.1.2 Centromeres seperate
1.1.1.1.1.3 Chromatids pulled towards pole centromere first
1.1.1.1.2 Nuclear membrane breaks down
1.1.1.1.3 Spindles made from centrioles
1.1.1.1.4 Chromatids line up on equator
1.1.1.2 Chromosomes coil and condense
1.1.1.2.1 Two chromatids
1.1.1.3 Centrioles begin to seperate
1.1.1.4 Nucleolus breaks down
1.1.2 Increase in mass And size and replicate
2 The characteristics of eukaryotic cells
2.1 Nucleus
2.1.1 Largest organelle
2.1.2 Controls the events of the cytoplasm
2.1.3 Contains RNA and DNA
2.2 Nucleolus
2.3 Nuclear membrane
2.3.1 Double membrane
2.3.2 Surrounds nucleus
2.4 Nuclear pore
2.4.1 To allow chemicals to pass in and out of the necleus
2.5 Mitochondrion
2.5.1 Power house of the cell
2.5.2 Release energy in the form of ATP
2.5.3 Have outer and inner membrane
2.5.3.1 Inner membrane folds to form cristae
2.5.3.2 Surrounded by fluid matrix
2.5.3.3 Stalked particles
2.6 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
2.6.1 Synthesis and transport of fatty molecules (steroids and lipids)
2.6.2 Tubular
2.7 Cell surface membrane
2.7.1 Edge of cell
2.8 Vacuole
2.8.1 Not permanent in animal cells
2.8.2 Form around prey engulfed
2.9 Golgi body
2.9.1 Stacks of parallel flattened membrane pockets
2.9.1.1 Cisternae
2.9.2 Modifies and transports out of cell
2.10 Roughy Endoplasmic reticulum
2.10.1 Covered in ribosomes
2.10.1.1 Makes proteins
2.10.2 Isolates proteins and transports them
2.10.3 Large surface area
2.11 Centrioles
2.11.1 Come in pairs (criss cross)
2.11.2 Madeup of nine tubules
2.12 Lysosomes
2.12.1 Break down substances
2.12.1.1 Using digestive enzymes
3 Growth
3.1 Cell division
3.1.1 Basis of growth
3.2 Assimilation
3.2.1 Photosynthesis produce new material needed for cell
3.3 Cell expansion
3.3.1 When cells get redress ther need. They expand
3.4 Things that effect it
3.4.1 Availability of food
3.4.2 Temperature
3.4.3 Light intensity
3.4.4 Genetic make-up
3.5 Growth paterns
3.5.1 Continuous growth
3.5.1.1 When things grow throughout life
3.5.2 Discontinuous growth
3.5.2.1 When living things moult then grow again
4 The organisaton of cells
4.1 Multicellular organisms made up of SPECIALISED CELLS
4.1.1 Don't work on own so organized into groups of TISSUES
4.1.1.1 Don't operate in isolation. Further organized to ORGANS
4.1.1.1.1 Work together with other organs to create a SYSTEM
4.1.1.1.2 Eg heart, lungs, liver ect...
4.1.1.2 Consist of one or more types of cell
4.1.1.3 Group of similar cells
4.1.1.4 4 main types
4.1.1.4.1 Epithelial tissues
4.1.1.4.2 Connective tissue
4.1.1.4.3 Nervous tissue
4.1.1.4.4 Muscle tissue
5 Asexual reproduction and natural cloning
5.1 One parent
5.2 Produces clones
5.3 Strategies of AR
5.3.1 Binary fission
5.3.1.1 Mitosis followed by splitting
5.3.1.2 In simple organisms
5.3.2 Regereration
5.3.2.1 Replace parts of body
5.3.3 Producing spores
5.3.3.1 Mitosis and producing asexual spores
5.3.3.2 Spread over great distances
5.3.4 Producing buds
5.3.4.1 Vegetative propagation
5.3.4.1.1 Occurs in flowering plants
5.3.4.1.2 Forms structure which develops into individule
5.3.4.1.3 Mitotic division
5.3.4.2 Budding
5.3.4.2.1 Mitotic divisions
5.3.4.2.2 Smaller but identical individual
5.3.4.2.3 Outgrowth from parent
6 Cell division
6.1 Asexual reproduction
6.1.1 Genetically identical offspring from one parent
6.2 Chromosomes
6.2.1 Made up of mass of coupled DNA threads
6.3 DNAwraps around histone
6.3.1 Forms necleosome
6.3.1.1 These coil together
6.3.1.1.1 Then super coil to form a chromosome
6.4 The cell cycle
6.4.1 Sequence of events when cells divide
6.4.2 Interphase
6.4.2.1 Mitosis
6.4.2.1.1 Cytokinesis
6.4.2.1.2 I Pee (on a) M A T
6.4.2.2 G1
6.4.2.3 S
6.4.2.4 G2
7 Looking at cells
7.1 Light/ Optical microscope
7.1.1 Advantages
7.1.1.1 Living things can be seen
7.1.1.2 They are fairly cheap
7.1.1.3 Can be moved around easily
7.1.2 Disadvantages
7.1.2.1 Staining can produce artifacts
7.1.2.2 Limited powers of resolution and magnification
7.2 Electron microscope
7.2.1 Advantages
7.2.1.1 Huge powers of resolution and magnification
7.2.2 Disadvantages
7.2.2.1 Impossible to view living things
7.2.2.2 Servers treatment artifacts could be produced
7.2.2.3 Extremely expensive
7.2.2.4 Can't be moved
7.2.2.5 ,use be kept under certain conditions
7.3 Prokaryote cells
7.3.1 Nucleoid
7.3.1.1 Nuclear material in single coiled strand
7.3.2 Cell surface membrane
7.3.3 Cell wall
7.3.4 Small 70's ribosomes
7.3.5 Glycogen granuales, Lipid droplets
7.3.6 *not in all bacteria
7.3.6.1 Flagellum (tail)
7.3.6.2 Plasmids
7.3.6.3 Mesosome
7.3.6.3.1 Where respiration takes place
7.3.6.4 Photosynthetic membranes
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