A2 PE History-Rational Recreation in Post-Industrial Britain

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Mind Map on A2 PE History-Rational Recreation in Post-Industrial Britain, created by sophielee0909 on 02/06/2014.

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sophielee0909
Created by sophielee0909 over 5 years ago
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A2 PE History-Rational Recreation in Post-Industrial Britain
1 R's- Rule based, Regular, Restrictive( by class & gender), Refined, Respectable, Roles clearly defined.
2 CHARACTERISTICS OF RATIONAL RECREATION & CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT v popular recreation
2.1 FAIR PLAY-Public School Influence v cruel + violent
2.2 PURPOSE BUILT FACILITIES- technological advancement v natural facilities
2.3 REGIONAL/NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL- improved transport & communications v local
2.4 CODIFICATION/ADMINISTRATION- business & administration skills from ex-public schoolboys v simple, unwritten rules
2.5 RESPECTABLE- middle class influence v cruel/violence
2.5.1 harsh rural lifestyle v more civilised lifestyle
2.6 REGULAR- increased free time & improved transport v occasional
2.6.1 Seasonal v machine time
2.7 EXCLUSIVE/ELITIST- Social class & gender discrimination v Courtly/popular
2.7.1 Feudal system/ two class society- emergence of middle class
2.8 URBAN/SUSBURBAN- the 'revolutions' v rural
2.8.1 Agricultural v Industrial
2.9 CONTROL OF GAMBLING- increased law & order v widespread wagering
2.9.1 Uncivilised, lack of policing system v increased law & order
2.10 AMATEURISM/PROFESSIONALISM- class structure/spectatorism
3 SOCIAL & CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONAL RECREATION
3.1 Changing views of the church- Against excess of popular recreation, accepting of moderation of rational recreation.
3.2 Emergence of middle classes- Changes in attitudes, tastes, manners and expectations.
3.3 Working conditions- Improved over time and impacted on health and participation.
3.4 Place & Status of women- Increased opportunity & participation by middle-class women by end of century- fewer opportunities for working classes
3.5 Transport revolution- Impact of railways, increased opportunities for participation and development and spread of sport
3.6 Increased free time- saturday half day, early closing movement, paid holidays for working classes by 1890's
3.7 Industrial Revolution
3.7.1 Industrial revolution- alongside development of technology, farming & transport methods, urbanisation and new class structure.
3.7.2 when rural peasants moned to urban areas,opportunities decreased, worked long hours in factories, depression, lack of sport.
4 changes in working class opportunity and provision.
4.1 1800-1850- Stage 1 & 2 of Public Schools- 72 hr working week, RSPCA, policing system, only 4 bank holidays a year.
4.2 1850-1900- Stage 3 of Public schools- Transport improved, Public baths, saturday half day, early closing movement, public parks, industrial patronage, 57 hr working week, annual excursion trips to seaside, week's paid holiday.
5 EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALISATION IN FIRST HALF OF 19TH CENTURY.
5.1 emergence of the middle class-factory owners- employed many
5.2 farm workers wages low- rural jobs hard to find- more agricultural machinery.
5.2.1 migration to cities- caused overcrowding
5.2.1.1 cramped & unhygenic- malnutrition & disease widespread.- cholera epidemic
5.3 caused lack of space,energy and time for recreation.-12 hr working days common.
5.4 violent-pre industrial festival games unsuitable for urban environment
5.5 OTHER IMPACTING FACTORS
5.5.1 social attitudes changing-growing respectability, more middle classs influence.
5.5.2 Church-wanted to change behaviour,bad language & excess of traditional festivals
5.5.2.1 new laws on respect and moderation introduced.
5.5.3 RSPCA in existence-1824- cruelty to animals banned
5.5.4 less seasonal work
5.5.5 number of official holidays reduced from 47 to 4, less opportunity
5.5.6 opening of railway lines-1830's
6 COMPARISON OF LIFE IN THE FIRST AND SECOND HALF OF 19TH CENTURY-
6.1 loss of space v more space to play- public parks
6.2 shift from seasonal to machine time- 12 hr days & no time to play v shorter working day & sat half day & paid annual holidays
6.3 poverty & low wages v improved wages
6.4 loss of rural patronage v increased industrial patronage-more opportunity & seaside trips
6.5 sudden urbanisation- overcrowding & poor living & working conditions v improved living & working conditions- gov't factory act, hygiene improved- public baths
6.6 increased law & order-RSPCA & police v improved transport & communications, changing social attitudes, increased law & order, support from the church
7 SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY
7.1 IMPROVED OPPORTUNITY AND PROVISION
7.1.1 earnings improved- working hours reduced & industrial patronage more widespead
7.1.1.1 Industrialists wanted healthy workforce
7.1.1.1.1 factory owners- opportunities for social,recreational & sporting activity. trips to seaside.
7.1.2 codified games e.g Rugby football emerged from oxbridge
7.1.3 rational games- Lawn tennis- invented by middle class entrepreneurs.
7.1.4 public parks opened, urban swimming baths- wash maual workers
7.2 TRANSPORT REVOLUTION-RAILWAYS
7.2.1 increased opportunity to take part in & watch sport
7.2.2 further in less time- more distant teams play & take supporters
7.2.3 caused standardised set of rules to be needed
7.2.4 development of leagues, cups & competitions
7.2.5 factory owners trips to the seaside
7.3 CLASS SYSTEM
7.3.1 class still determined status as an ameteur/professional
7.4 INCREASING FREE TIME
7.4.1 reduced working hours-early closing movement
7.4.2 excessive working hours thought to be damaging to health
7.4.3 Saturday half day- watching/playing sport
7.4.4 1890s- 1 week paid holiday
7.4.5 wages increased & 3rd class rail available
8 CHANGING VIEWS OF THE CHURCH
8.1 Medieval period-Puritanism
8.1.1 opposed many popular sports, against sporntenaety & freedom of traditional sports, only prayerful, sober, quiet & hardworking go to heaven
8.2 17-00-1850- Protestantism
8.2.1 1700s-Feast days & space for community gatherings, by 1800- criticised drunken excess,violence, mischief linked with popular recreations & withdrew support-resulted in decline in community participation, 19thC- Christianity & protestant work ethic established
8.3 1850s, evangelism & social christianity
8.3.1 ex-puiblic school & university men promoted sport & games, YMCA-athletic & religious association- encouraged participation in sport
9 RATIONAL RECREATION EFFECTS ON SKILL & HEALTH
9.1 UPPER & MIDDLE CLASS
9.1.1 Bathing & Swimming- developed rational swimming in urban baths-
9.1.2 Athletics- governing bodies formed, ongoing early rural sports, athletics meetings-improved skill
9.1.3 Football- Amateur involvement in exclusive teams
9.1.4 Cricket-skilful & increases outdoor activity
9.1.5 Lawn Tennis- Skilful & health enhancing, opportunities for women
9.2 WORKING CLASS
9.2.1 Bathing & Swimming- combatted urban disease- penny baths
9.2.2 Athletics- governing bodies formed- meetings held
9.2.3 Football- mainly as spectators, opportunities for few skilled players to become professionals
9.2.4 Cricket- skilful & increase outdoor activity
9.2.5 Lawn Tennis- limited access for lower classes- park provision & club development
9.3 AMATEURISM V PROFESSIONALISM
9.3.1 middle-class gentlemen amateurs- took park for love of game & intrinsic rewards
9.3.2 Working-class men- could not afford to play games for the enjoyment- sometimes chance to earn money as professional.
9.4 WOMEN IN VICTORIAN BRITAIN
9.4.1 inappropriate for middle-class women to exercise,sweat or display body, overexertion medically harmful
9.4.2 Lawn Tennis-1870's- route to emancipation of women,
9.4.3 exercise gradually more acceptible-appropriate clothing designed
9.5 VARYING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PARTICIPATION
9.5.1 class & gender- opportunity, provision & esteem
9.5.2 emergence of middle class- invention of bicycle due to no horses,, invention of Lawn Tennis due to lack of acces to Real Tennis
9.5.3 working class had to wait for opportunities to participate at community level- public park provision
10 IMPACTS ON & LINKS TO TODAY
10.1 still have decenteralised, amateur & voluntary organisation & administration of sport, at lower levels
10.1.1 result of NGB formation & club sports
10.2 only recently moved to more professional approach at all levels- more centeralised
10.3 still used sportsmanship ethics adopted in rational recreation

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