Chloe Woolner
Mind Map by Chloe Woolner, updated more than 1 year ago
Chloe Woolner
Created by Chloe Woolner over 5 years ago


AS - Level Sociology Mind Map on FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS: Demography, created by Chloe Woolner on 05/19/2016.

Resource summary

    1. sociologists use the concept of birth rate to measure births
      1. the birth rate is defined as the number of live births per thousand of the population per year
        1. there has been a long term decline in the number of births since 1900.
          1. there have been fluctuations in births, with three 'baby booms' in the 20th century
        1. the factors determining the birth rate, firstly the proportion of women who are of childbearing age and secondly how fertile they are
          1. the total fertility rate is the average number of children women will have during their fertile years
            1. the UK's TFR has risen in recent years, but still much lower than the past
          2. these changes in fertility and birth rate reflect the idea that:
            1. more women are remaining childless than in the past
              1. women are postponing having children, the average age for giving birth today is 30
            1. sociologists have identified a number of reasons for the long term decline in the birth rate since 1900. these reasons involve a range of social, economic, cultural, legal, political and technological factors
              1. 1. CHANGES IN WOMENS POSITION
                1. there were major changes in the position of women during the 20th century
                  1. legal equality with men, including the right to vote
                    1. increased educational oppurtunities- girls now do better at school than boys
                      1. more women in paid employment, plus laws outlawing equal pay and sex discrimination
                        1. changes in attitudes to family life and womens role
                          1. easier access to divorce
                            1. access to abortion and reliable contraception, giving women more control over their fertility
                  1. the infant mortality rate measures the number of infants who die before their first birthday, per thousand babies born alive, per year
                    1. the UK's IMR has began to fall. this is due to:
                      1. improved housing and better sanitation, such as clean drinking water and reduced infections
                        1. better nutrition, including that of mothers
                          1. better knowledge of hygiene, child health and welfare
                            1. a fall in the number of married women working may have improved their health and that of their babies.
                              1. improved services for mothers and children
                    1. until the late 19th century, children were economic assets to their parents because they could be sent out to work from an early age to earn an income
                      1. since the late 19th century children have gradually become an economic liability
                      2. laws: banning child labour, introducing compulsory education and raising the school leaving age mean that children remain dependent on their parents for longer
                        1. changing norms: about what children have a right to expect from their parents in material terms means that the cost of raising children has risen
                        2. 4. CHILD CENTREDNESS
                          1. the increasing child centredness both of the family and society means that childhood is now socially constructed as a uniquely important period in the individuals life
                            1. this has encouraged a shift from 'quantity' to 'quality'- parents now have fewer children and lavish more attention and rescouces on these few
                        3. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN FERTILITY
                          1. THE FAMILY
                            1. smaller families means that women are more likely to be free to go out to work, creating a dual earner couple typical of many professional families
                              1. better off couples may be able to have larger families and still afford childcare that allows them both to work full time
                              2. THE DEPENDENCY RATIO
                                1. this is the relationship between the size of the working part of the population and the size of the non working part of the population, also known as the dependent
                                  1. the earnings, savings and taxes from the working population must support the dependent
                                    1. children make up a large part of the dependent population, so a fall in children reduces the burden of dependency on the working population
                                  2. PUBLIC SERVICES AND POLICIES
                                    1. a lower birth rate has consequences for public services, e.g fewer schools and maternity and child health services may be needed
                                      1. it also affects the cost of maternity and parernity leave and the types of housing that need to be built
                                      2. AN AGEING POPULATION
                                        1. one effect of women having fewer babies is that the average age of the population is rising
                                          1. there are more old people relative to young people
                                            1. this ageing of the population has a number of important effects
                                    2. DEATHS
                                      1. REASON FOR THE DECLINE IN DEATH RATE
                                        1. over three-quarters of the decline in the death rate from about 1850 to 1970 was due to a fall in the number of deaths from infectious diseases such as diptheria, measles, smallpox, typhiod and TB.
                                          1. deaths from infectious diseases were commonest in the young and the most of the decline in the death rate occured among infants, children and young adults
                                          2. there are several possible reasons for the decline in deaths from infection. it is possible that the population began to develop some natural resistance or that some diseases became less powerful
                                            1. IMPROVED NUTRITION: accounted for half the reduction in death rates. better nutrition increased the survival chances of those who did become infected
                                              1. MEDICAL IMPROVEMENTS: medical improvements played almost no part in the reduction of deaths from infectious diseases. after the 1950s, improved medical knowledge, techniques and organisation did help to reduce death rates.
                                                1. the introduction of anibiotics, immunisation, blood transfusion, improved maternity services as well as the setting up of the NHS in 1948
                                                  1. SMOKING AND DIET: in the 21st century, obesity has replaced smoking as the new lifestyle epidemic. deaths from obesity have been kept low as a result of drug therapies. we could be moving onto an 'american' health culture where lifestyles are unhealthy but where a long lifespan is achieved by the use of costly medication
                                                    1. PUBLIC HEALTH MEASURES: in the 20th century, more effective central and local governments with the necessary power to pass and enforce laws led to a range of improvements in public health
                                                      1. these included improvments in housing, purer drinking water, laws to conbat the adulteration of food and drink and improved sewage disposal methods
                                                        1. the clean air act reduced air pollution, such as smog
                                          3. LIFE EXPECTANCY
                                            1. refers to how long on average a person born in a given year can expect to live
                                              1. as death rates have fallen, life expectancy has increased
                                              2. one reason for lower average life expectancy in 1900 was the fact that so many infants and children did not survive beyond the early years of life
                                                1. if the trend for greater long lifespan continues, harper predicts that we will soon achieve 'radical longevity' with many more people aged over 100
                                                2. THE AGEING POPULATION
                                                  1. the average age of the UK population is rising. there are fewer young people and more older people
                                                    1. the ageing population is caused by 3 factors: INCREASING LIFE EXPECTANCY, DECLINING INFANT MORTALITY, DECLINING FERTILITY
                                                      1. EFFECTS OF AN AGEING POPULATION
                                                        1. PUBLIC SERVICES
                                                          1. older people consume a larger proportion of services such as health and social care
                                                            1. however we should be aware of over-generalising, since many people remain in relatively good health well into old age
                                                              1. in addition, an ageing population may also mean changes to policies and provision of housing, transport or other services
                                                          2. ONE-PERSON PENSIONER HOUSEHOLDS
                                                            1. the number of pensioners living alone has increased and one-person pensioner households now account for about 12.5% of all households
                                                              1. among the over 75s, there are twice as many women as men
                                                              2. THE DEPENDENCY RATIO
                                                                1. as the number of retired people rises, this increases the dependency ratio and the burden on the working population
                                                                  1. in an ageing population this is offset by a declining number of dependent children
                                                              3. AGEISM, MODERNITY AND POSTMODERNITY
                                                                1. modern society is the growth of ageism- the negative stereotyping and unequal treatment of people based on their age
                                                                  1. most sociologists argue that ageism is the result of 'structured dependency'. the old age are largely excluded from paid work laving them economically dependent on families and the state
                                                                    1. age becomes an important role allocation, the old are therefore excluded from a role in the labour force and made dependent and powerless
                                                                2. INEQUALITY AMONG THE OLD
                                                                  1. CLASS: the middle class have better occupational pensions and greater savings from higher salaries. poorer old people have a shorter life expectancy and suffer more infirmity
                                                                    1. GENDER: womens lower earnings and career breaks as carers means lower pensions. they are also subject to sexist as well as ageist stereotyping
                                                                      1. often restricts the freedom of older people to choose an identity
                                                                        1. older people also face discrimination that limits their choices
                                                                    2. MIGRATION
                                                                      1. IMMIGRATION: movement into a society
                                                                        1. EMIGRATION: movement out
                                                                          1. NET MIGRATION: difference between the numbers of immigrants and the numbers of emigrants, and is expressed as a net increase or a net decrease due to migration
                                                                        2. IMMIGRATION
                                                                          1. very few immigrant were non-white
                                                                            1. by 2011, ethnic minority groups accounted for 14% of the population
                                                                              1. one result has seen a greater diversity of family patterns
                                                                            2. a series of immigration and nationality acts placed severe restrictions on non-white immigration.
                                                                            3. EMIGRATION
                                                                              1. the main reasons for emigration have been economic: push factors: such as economic recession and employment at home
                                                                                1. pull factors: such as higher wages or better oppurtunites abroad
                                                                                  1. these economic reasons for migration contrast with those of some other groups, who have been driven to migrate by religious, political or radical persecution
                                                                                2. THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON UK POPULATION STRUCTURE
                                                                                  1. POPULATION SIZE: the UK population is currently growing, partly as a result of immigration
                                                                                    1. net migration is high with more immigrants than emigrants
                                                                                      1. natural increase: brits exceeding deaths. births to UK born mothers remain low. births to non- UK born mothers are higher
                                                                                    2. AGE STRUCTURE: immigration lowers the average age of the population both directly and indirectly =.
                                                                                      1. DIRECTLY: immigrants are generally younger, INDIRECTLY: being younger, immigrants are more fertile and produce more babies
                                                                                      2. THE DEPENDENCY RATIO: immigration has 3 effects
                                                                                        1. immigrants are more likely to be of working age and this helps lower the dependecy ratio
                                                                                          1. immigrants are more likely to be children, thereby increasing the ratio
                                                                                            1. the longer a gap is settled in the country, the closer their fertility rate comes to the national average, reducing their overall impact
                                                                                    3. GLOBALISATION AND MIGRATION
                                                                                      1. GLOBALISATION is the idea that barriers between societies are disappearing and people are becoming increasingly interconnected
                                                                                        1. globalisation is the result of many processes, including the growth of communication systems and global media
                                                                                        2. ACCELERATION
                                                                                          1. there has been a speeding up of the rate of migration. in 2013, 862,000 people either entered or left the UK
                                                                                          2. DIFFERENTIATION
                                                                                            1. there are many types of migrant
                                                                                              1. these include: permanent settlers, temporary workers, spouses and forced migrants such as refugees and asylum seekers
                                                                                                1. globalisation is increasing the diversity of types of migrant
                                                                                                  1. SUPER DIVERSITY: migrants now come from a much wider range of countries. even within a single ethnic group, individuals differ in terms of their legal status
                                                                                              2. there are class differences among migrants
                                                                                                1. CITIZENS: with full citizenship rights, the UK state has made it harder for immigrants to acquire these rights
                                                                                                  1. DENIZENS: are privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state, eg highly paid employees
                                                                                                    1. HELOTS: are the most exploited group. 'disposable units of labour power', a reserve army of labour. they are unskilled, poorly paid work and include illegally trafficked workers
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