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Revision for 4 topics in Philosophy and Ethis

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y10ullyottl
Created by y10ullyottl over 5 years ago
RE-Believing in God (Key Words)
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The Right to Life-Euthanasia
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Edexcel GCSE RE Unit 8.1 Key words
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Peace and Conflict
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RE
1 MEDICAL ETHICS
1.1 Medical Ethics
1.1.1 EUTHANASIA
1.1.1.1 'good death' or assisted suicide
1.1.1.2 TYPES
1.1.1.2.1 Voluntary
1.1.1.2.1.1 Doctor ends life on request.
1.1.1.2.2 Involuntary
1.1.1.2.2.1 Killed without consultation no other reason then they are disabled, sick or elderly
1.1.1.2.3 Non - Voluntary
1.1.1.2.3.1 Consults relatives, discuss if death is in the sick persons best interest
1.1.2 Suicide
1.1.2.1 Deliberately taking your own life
1.1.2.1.1 It is wrong - you don't have the right to destroy life
1.1.2.1.2 73CE 1000 Jews commited suicide in Masada to prevent themselves from becoming slaves
1.1.2.1.3 I am giving you the choice between life and death, between Gods blessing and G-D's cross - Deuteronomy
1.1.2.2 Not 'Suicide' if you have a mental health problem, don't think straight
1.1.2.3 If a person commits suicide their burial rights are different. They cannot be buried near family and have to be 6 feet away from another jewish grave.
1.1.2.3.1 However is someone is Anuss - not held responsible for there action they are buried normally.
1.1.2.4 Explain Jewish attitudes towards suicide.
1.1.2.4.1 All Jews believe suicide is wrong. Only G-d decides who dies and when ' individuals do not have the right to destroy life' also Deuteronomy from the Torah
1.1.2.4.2 In the Talmud it states that suicide is wrong. Someone who commits, their burial rights are different.
1.2 Animals in Research
1.2.1 Can involve - Cosmetic testing, drug effects and smoking and practicing medical procedures
1.2.2 Ethical Issue? - Yes because humans are possibly saying that they are above animals, that animals have little rights. Also how they are treated, necessary?
1.2.3 Judaism does allow animal research because they don't believe animals to be equal to humans.
1.2.3.1 But when animals are needed their suffering must be kept to a minimum. No pointless tests.
1.2.3.1.1 Hole - They must think they have some rights otherwise they would allow numerous test?
1.2.3.2 But when used for testing makeup or to please humans it is wrong. Many jews believe that students testing on animals is wrong because most testing can be done on computers.
1.2.3.3 G-ds teachings require you to refrain from inflicting unnecessary harm to animals and to help lessen pain when they are suffering.
1.2.4 Rights
1.2.4.1 Judaism teaches that animals are a important part of creation people do have a responsibility to care for animals. However human life is more valuable.
1.2.4.1.1 Animals should also rest on the Sabbath.
1.2.4.2 Some people believe that animals should have rights because they show emotions and express feelings.
1.2.5 You shall not muzzle an ox while it is threshing. Deuteronomy 25:4 [Torah] A righteous man knows the needs of his beast. Proverbs 12:10a [Tenakh] It is forbidden to cause pain to any animal. Maimonides
1.3 Abortion
1.3.1 Life is a gift from God
1.3.1.1 It is sacred
1.3.1.2 Embryo has life - Abortion is Murder
1.3.1.3 If mothers life in danger - Jews will then allow abortion.
1.3.1.3.1 Both Orthodox and Reformed Jews agreed that if mothers life is in danger abortion should take place.
1.3.2 Reformed
1.3.2.1 Allow Abortion; Mother under 16, The pregnancy is by rape or incest or if the baby will be born with severe mental or physical handicap.
1.3.3 Orthodox
1.3.3.1 Some Rabbis still don't allow abortion if rape or when the foetus is abnormal, even if the law of the land allows it.
1.3.4 A Jewish women may consult her Rabbi before she is going to have an abortion, too check if she is allowed to go ahead with it. She would consult him because abortion relies on Rabbi teachings and interpretation of beliefs.
1.3.5 IVF
1.3.5.1 Part D Question
1.3.5.1.1 Any Jew may be against fertility treatment, just like any other person, because of there opinion, however they may also be against it due to poor experience. Jewish teaching teach that the seed should to be wasted so obtaining the seed outside the body may be to some Jews as wasting the seed for its intended purpose and that fetilization is taking place outside of the body. Also Jews express the fact that no 3rd party donor should be used because then the child is not seen as the son/daughter of the women. Then there is no problem with parentage. Then there is the problem with IVF of is it taking the decision away from G-D. Some Jews do reject the idea of IVF because of the validity of fertilisation and the problem with the seed. Also there is a problem with surrogacy, who is the childs mother, if they do or don't have a Jewish mother who is required to bring them up.
1.4 Cloning
1.4.1 Not yet been developed for humans but may, in the future be a mitzvah for infertile couples
2 RELIGION AND RELATIONSHIPS
2.1 Divorce
2.1.1 Not seen as a good thing
2.1.2 If a couple is experiencing difficulties try to resolve them first
2.1.2.1 Sometimes not possible so requires man to divorce his wife
2.1.3 Only in case of adultery, divorce must take place
2.1.4 Divorce paper is the 'GET'
2.1.4.1 Man gives to Women
2.1.4.2 Apply to Bet Din for a date
2.1.4.2.1 Bet Din is Jewish Court
2.1.4.3 Husband authorises scribe to write Get
2.1.4.4 Witness signs it to
2.1.4.5 Rabbi present - husband passes Get to wife in two hands - This be your get.
2.1.4.6 Wife then holds up get to show possession then gives back to rabbi
2.1.4.7 4 corners torn off to show it has been used. (Kept by Bet Din) Then given release form.
2.1.4.8 Talmud - When one divorces his first wife even the alter sheds a tear
2.1.4.9 Must wait 92 days
2.1.5 Agunot - Chained Women (husband refuses, disappears or incapable of doing so due to illness.
2.1.6 Mamzerim - Offspring of forbidden man. Children born of a re-marry if the divorce is only civil and not a get.
2.1.7 When one divorces his first wife, even the Altar sheds tears. Talmud
2.2 Kosher Sex
2.2.1 Outside marriage is bad
2.2.2 Sex is not only to have kids but to bond
2.2.3 She has the right, it is his duty
2.2.4 Ultimate Bonding
2.2.5 God Worthy
2.2.6 Mikveh
2.2.6.1 Is a ritual cleansing pool. Mainly 4 women after a period, it is important to cleans the body of impurities
2.2.6.1.1 Niddah - Womens period of ritual purity
2.2.6.2 Do not come near a woman during her period of uncleanness to uncover her nakedness. Leviticus 18:19 [Torah]
2.2.7 Contraception
2.2.7.1 Reformed and Liberal Jews allow contraception in many curcumstances
2.2.7.1.1 But Orthodox only 3 cases
2.2.7.1.1.1 If pregnancy may harm women
2.2.7.1.1.2 To limit family number
2.2.7.1.1.3 To space children out
2.2.7.2 Not devices that harm or stop sperm from reaching the right area
2.2.7.2.1 So the pill is allowed
2.2.7.2.2 In the Talmud it permits women to drink potions
2.2.7.3 Be fertile and increase, fill the earth. Genesis 1:28 [Torah]
2.3 Marriage
2.3.1 Called Kiddushin
2.3.1.1 Dedication
2.3.1.2 Spiritual binding together
2.3.1.3 Intended by God and is natural state people should live in.
2.3.2 Purpose
2.3.2.1 Show commitment - lifelong
2.3.2.2 Sexual desires - one person
2.3.2.3 Companionship
2.3.2.4 Secure to have children
2.3.2.5 Closer to G-D
2.3.3 Ceremony
2.3.3.1 Contract - Ketubah
2.3.3.1.1 Husbands obligations to wife
2.3.3.1.2 2 Witness
2.3.3.2 Chuppah
2.3.3.2.1 Symbol of the new home
2.3.3.3 Breaking of the glass
2.3.3.3.1 Symbolises sorrow of the Jewish people over destruction of the temple
2.3.3.3.2 Even though they are happy there would be more joy if could furfil temple commandments
2.3.4 A man without a woman is doomed to an existence without joy, without blessing, without experiencing life’s true goodness, without Torah, without protection and without peace. Talmud
2.4 Gay
2.4.1 Do not lie with a man, as one lies with a woman; that is detestable. Leviticus 18:22
3 GOOD AND EVIL
3.1 There is the Devil or Satan which is seen as evil.
3.1.1 Storys of him in the Apocrypha
3.2 Also Natural and Moral Evil
3.2.1 Moral Evil - Deeds or behaviour of people which are seen to cruel and uncaring.
3.2.2 Natural Evil - Natural Events such as volcanos,earthquakes etc not caused by humans.
3.3 Why is there Evil?
3.3.1 God does not Exist
3.3.2 God is not all-powerful
3.3.3 God is intact responsible for everything so is responsible for evil and suffering as well as good.
3.4 Explain Christian teachings about God and the Devil.
3.4.1 Community - Omnipotent, omniscient etc. He is full of good. Superior to the devil.
3.4.2 Personal - Devil tries to tempt people away from God. But God tries to keep you with him.
3.4.3 Spirit - Follow God resist the temptation from God. Example Jesus in the Desert
3.4.4 Moral - Modern Temptation
3.5 'Job'
3.5.1 He was a rich man - 7 sons 3 daughters. 7000 sheep, 3000 camels etc.
3.5.2 He Loved God
3.5.3 God made a deal with the devil.
3.5.4 The Devil ruined Jobs life.
3.5.5 He remained loving God though
3.5.6 God doubled everything Job had as a thankyou
3.6 Different Views
3.6.1 Humanist
3.6.1.1 Suggest that live without God - you can choose to make your life good or bad.
3.6.2 St Augustine - Evil is an absence of good.
3.6.2.1 Evil is a consequence of the fall - Adam and Eve
3.6.2.2 Only suffer if we stray from Gods path
3.6.3 Irenaeus
3.6.3.1 Traces Evil back to free will - but differs fro Augustine - God made humans imperfectly
3.7 Coping with Suffering
3.7.1 Prayer, Jesus and Church
3.8 Morals
4 END OF LIFE
4.1 LIFE AFTER DEATH?
4.1.1 HELL
4.1.1.1 There are nine circles in HELL. PLus the Woods and the Vestibul.
4.1.1.1.1 Circle 1 - Limbo
4.1.1.1.2 Circle 2 - The Lustful
4.1.1.1.3 Circle 3 - The Gluttonous
4.1.1.1.4 Circle 4 - Hoards and Wasters
4.1.1.1.5 Circle 5 - The Wrathful
4.1.1.1.6 Circle 6 - City of Dis
4.1.1.1.7 Circle 7 - The Violent
4.1.1.1.8 Circle 8 - The Fraudulent
4.1.1.1.9 Circle 9 - The Treacherous
4.1.2 Purgatory
4.1.2.1 The Roman catholic church teaches that very few people are ready for heaven. Even if they have lived free from sin. They go to purgatory rather than heaven. They will eventually go to heaven after being freed from their sin.
4.1.2.2 You don't have to encounter Christianity to go to heaven.
4.1.3 Heaven
4.1.3.1 Throne
4.1.3.2 Bright + Light
4.1.3.3 Gems and precious stones
4.1.3.4 A man on the Throne.
4.1.3.5 People may see the 'beatific Vision'
4.1.4 God as a Judge
4.1.4.1 Fair, Honest, Unpredest
4.1.4.2 Goats and the Sheep
4.1.4.2.1 Goats - People who aren't helpful
4.1.4.2.2 Sheep - People who are good, caring and kind.
4.1.4.3 When you die you are judged by God, if you had a good life or a bad. Then you are sent to heaven, hell or purgatory.
4.2 Body and Soul
4.2.1 Animals do have souls - St Francis
4.2.2 Soul is eternal, it makes us, us. The human essence. Made of 3 parts - Plato
4.2.2.1 It isn't eternal. The Knife, essence of a knife is to cut. When destroyed it losses its essence. When a person dies they cannot act rationally - their essence is gone. - Aristotal
4.2.3 Body and soul are often opposed. Soul follows God. Body looks for pleasure on earth.
4.2.4 When someone die a new 'spiritual body' went to heaven. Paul
4.2.5 Breath of life
4.2.5.1 Soul into first human
4.2.5.2 Genesis
4.2.6 Most believe that animals do not have souls
4.3 Funeral Rites
4.3.1 I am the resurrection and life - John 11.25
4.3.2 Burial
4.3.2.1 In the ground or cremated.
4.3.2.2 Further prayers are said.
4.3.2.2.1 Minister will say a final committal statement, this is done at cremation as well.
4.3.3 Eulogy
4.3.3.1 Tell the life of the person, so that they may be remembered for their good things in life.
4.3.3.2 The significance of this is that the dead person is remembered for the good and happy things.
4.3.4 Holy Communion
4.3.4.1 Known as mass
4.3.4.2 Almost always,performed in Catholic funerals and is not uncommon in other denominations
4.3.5 Prayers
4.3.5.1 Are said for the family of the dead, asking God for support
4.3.5.2 The significance is that everyone is cared for not just the person who is dead.
4.3.6 Hymns
4.3.6.1 Possible favourites of the dead.
4.3.7 Bible reading
4.3.7.1 Focus on eternal life. Shows that their life has not ended.

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