World Cities

Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

Overview of case studies for world cities

Created by mxbacon27 over 3 years ago
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World Cities
1 Urbanisation
1.1 Mumbai
1.1.1 Dhavari Issues Solutions Bandra Kurla Complex 200000 jobs £300000/yr Vision Mumbai 2004 Increase economic growth by 8% 300 toilets Restores 330 open spaces 200000 moved from the slums Rainwater harvesting systems New Metro Line Over 1million people in area of 2km 500/toilet Only 30% with health care 50% have no access to clean water 4000 cases of thyphoid/day 3500 die on railway each year 10 times particulate count Landfill with 300,000 rag pickers Positives Over 15000 factories worth $700 million Recycles over 80% of its waste Recycling worth $1.5 million and employs 10000
1.1.2 Over 21million people 60% live in slums Rent is £2 in slums compared with the £40 in the city while income averages £12 Rents for suburban apartments higher than in London/New York Call workers only earn $5000/yr +1000 migrant per day
1.1.3 Indias largest port where 40% of there exports travel from 20% of Indias manufacturing with 10% of all its factories Transport: 2 transcontinental railways 40% of international flights
1.2 World City = city that acts as a center for trade, business, science and culture.
1.2.1 Megacity = a city with a population over 10 million eg, Mumbai, Tokyo... Currently 28 across the world.
1.2.2 Alpha++ : New York, London, Tokyo Alpha+: Paris, Hong Kong, Beijing Alpha: Brussels, Mumbai, LA 25% of Frances GDP from Paris 40% of UK's GDP from London
2 Suburbanisation
2.1 Retail Centers
2.1.1 Trafford Positives Easy access via the M60 and M62 11500 free parking spaces 1600 seat food court Over 280 shops including chain stores (eg, Selfridges) Over 8% in catchment Metro link with 40 runs/hr 20 screen cinema Climbing wall, Laser Quest Football courts Indoor Skydiving (Airkix) Chill Factor Provides over 8000 jobs Royal Childrens Hospital Encouraged renewable in the city center of Altringham Negatives Over 80% drive - exclusive to drivers Vacancies increased in Altringham to 37% (3x average)and many local shops displaced Investment in the city center decreased for a time Cost an initial £600 million Worth £13 million/yr
2.2 Los Angeles
2.2.1 International Airport (6th most used in world) Over half a million arrived in 40 yrs Now over 21 million in population (conurbation)
2.2.2 Hollywood appeal, Disneyland, Universal Studios
2.2.3 Californian SunBelt
2.2.4 Issues Half of the water lost Nearly 900 golf courses which use 900 mil gallons of water Produces 50,000 tonnes are waste/yr Only 10% use public transport (4x less than in London) 2 hrs from outskirts to CBD Donut city effect with run down center. High dereliction, crime, vacancies and dormitory housing
2.2.5 Electric Tramway
2.2.6 Green, open space
2.2.7 PLAN cost $2.2 bn and is helping to increase renewables from 20% to 33%, build a BRT, restore brownfield sites, increase parks and build affordable housing. Has helped to improve tourism.
2.2.8 Oil, car (Ford) and aircraft industry
2.3 Suburbiton
2.3.1 Attractions include transport link (18 mins to London), Close to the A3, quality housing and state schools and parks
2.3.2 Issues 70% car ownership causes congestion 40% drive to work every day increasing pollution House prices are 2x average London Travel Zone 6 = train fares are expensive
2.3.3 Solutions Travel Zone 5 New bike storage units and pedestrian access Parking bays and set delivery times
3 Counter Urbanisation
3.1 St. Ives (Cambridgeshire)
3.1.1 Reasons 70 miles north of London Electric Railway taking only 45 mins to London A14 to London Over 25% commute to London Attractive with the River Ouse
3.1.2 Issues Over 1000 new houses at risk from flooding House prices increased from£130000 to £290000 in 10 yrs Demand for new housing and conversions along the River Pressure on local schools and nurseries Local corner shops being replaced by chain brands
3.1.3 Management 200 new homes approved. 75 affordable eg social rents or low-cost ownership 240 places in local primary school and more jobs for teachers Employment in local stores Flood protections of embankments and wallscosting £8.8 million £116 million guided busway and new electrified train station
3.2 aka Rural Urban Turnaround
4 Redevelopment
4.1 Gentrification
4.1.1 Islington and Notting Hill Old Victorian and Georgian housing Close to Londons city center Initial pricing to buy cheap Nearby Angel Underground station Effects From £130000 to over 4x as expensive in 20 yrs Locals displaced by higher costs and social housing up to 50% Local businesses closed as replaced by brand stores Wealth gap one of highest 8th most deprived area 2nd highest child poverty High unemployment and high crime Ownership from just 7% to 34% in 50 yrs Professionals in area increased 27% in 10 yrs More stores complying to the London living wage of £8.30/hr
4.2 New East Manchester URC and Partnership
4.2.1 Sport Led via the 2004 Common Wealth New Veledrome, National Squash Center, Olympic swimming pool Sport City with 10 new urban parks and 12 community gardens Sport City Link with 3 Metro Lines Surrounding Gentrification in New Islington with 5000 new affordable homes and 6700 improved homes 2 Health Centers
4.2.2 School attendance went to record high and unemployment from 14% to 6%
4.2.3 30,000 new jobs created (600 trained) and another 200 in new ASDA
4.2.4 Benefits claimants went from 20% to under 10%
4.3 London Docklands UDC
4.3.1 Canary Wharf with tri nuclear CBD and the HSBC HQ. Total of 2700 businesses worth £7.7bn 100000 commuters/day Unemployment from 14% to 7% 120000 new jobs in newly built facilities like shopping complexes
4.3.2 Docklands Light Railway over 35000 passengers 2 new links through the city sutting times to 20 mins Safer pedestrian and cycle routes
4.3.3 5 new health centers and a sailing and watersports center (£100 mil spent)
4.3.4 Docks restored with 20000 new trees planted and 3 urban parks
5 Sustainability
5.1 Management
5.1.1 Reduce 5p bag charge (reduced use by 70% in UK)
5.1.2 Reuse Packaging and product lifespan
5.1.3 Recover Recycling, composting and incineration
5.1.4 Disposal Landfill (should be reduced to 35% by 2020)
5.2 Curitiba
5.2.1 Transport Bus Rapid Tranport system 1.4 million passengers per day (80% of commuters) 1,900 buses Runs on biodiesel - lowest air pollution in Brazil Bi-articulated buses that can carry 127 people including diabled Tube bus stations to minimise loading times Same fee from any destination Colour schemed to create easy system to use Arterial plan through the city with green corridors Over 200km of new cycle route Within 400m of every house
5.2.2 Waste Green Exchange system Employs over 200 lorry drivers Poor receive clothing and food for recycling Bin collection for narrower streets Recycles 80% of its waste
5.3 London
5.3.1 Transport Congestion Charge 2003 £11.50 £65-£195 charges £2.6 bn revenue after 10 yrs 5% went to renewing bus routes and a 12% increase in bus use Congestion reduced by 33% and transport time down 30% CO2 and NO2 fell by 20% and 17% Borris Bikes 2010 £2 deposit for 24 hrs, 30mins free ride with over 11500 bikes and 570 docking stations Barclays to Santander Blind spot reduced by 30% due to safety lasers 33% reduction in accidents Revenue over £330000 in first 100 days 49% promoted to cycle
5.4 BedZED 2000-2002
5.4.1 100 homes/workspace for 100 90% less energy for heating 45% less electricity 11% solar powered 60% waste recycled 65% less car milage 777m2 solar panels
5.4.2 300mm insulation jackets and triple glazing Face south with rainwater harvesting and recycling Use LEDs Offices north facing to minimise air con Green transport, charging points for electric cars and car pooling All material sources in 50m radius Powerplant uses tree cuttings as power source
5.5 LEDC's
5.5.1 China PM2.5 air quality 25X limit 200 days of smog in Hangzhou Lung cancer 3X average Mist cannons worth $90000 each Number Plate lottery and cap on new cars
5.5.2 Kenya Door to door pick up service only £0.17 and drop off for half World bike = income
5.5.3 Cairo 30% is salvaged and recycled Sell products abroad

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