Topic 1: Qualitative analysis

Alice Clayden
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on Topic 1: Qualitative analysis, created by Alice Clayden on 04/24/2013.

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Alice Clayden
Created by Alice Clayden over 6 years ago
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Topic 1: Qualitative analysis
1 Qualitative analysis- any method used to identify which chemicals are present for example using an indicator to find out if acids are present.
2 Quantitative analysis- any method used to determine the amount of a particular chemical present for example carrying out an acid-base titration.
3 Flame tests for metal ions: yellow = sodium, lilac = potassium, brick red = calcium, blue/green = copper
4 Precipitate tests for metal ions - add sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to each solution
4.1 Copper = blue precipitate
4.2 Iron II = green precipitate
4.3 Iron III = brown precipitate
4.4 Aluminium = white precipitate
4.5 Calcium = white precipitate
4.6 Aluminium and calcium can be distinguished by adding excess sodium hydroxide
4.6.1 Calcium ions would be unchanged but aluminium ions would redissolve to form a colourless solution
4.7 All preciptates are solid hydroxides of the cation e.g. calcium hydroxide
5 Testing for Halide ions:chloride, bromide and iodide- add silver nitrate (AgNO3)
5.1 Chloride ions = white precipitate
5.2 Bromide ions = cream/ pale yellow
5.3 iodide ions = yellow
6 Anion = negative
7 Cation = positive
8 Identifying ammonium ions: warm the unknown substance (e.g. ammonium chloride) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
8.1 If a smelly gas is given off and damp red litmus paper turns blue then ammonium ions are present
8.2 NaOH(aq) + NH4Cl(aq) = NH3(g) + H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
9 Why test for ions in industry?
9.1 Forensic science, water checked for purity and safety- levels of compounds/ ions can be unsafe, also to identify unknown compounds in water
9.2 chlorine is used to kill bacteria in our water so the concentrations of chloride ions are monitored by chemists
9.3 minerals in the diet are very important for health- ions tests our done on our blood to check for mineral defiency
9.3.1 Copper, Potassium, Calcium & sodium are tested for - flame test
9.3.2 chlorides and iodides are tested for to - halide test
9.4 water that is too hard will produce alot of scum- impact on industrial and domestic machinery e.g. washing machines

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