Outline and evaluate evolutionary explanations of group display in humans

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A-Level Psychology (PSYA3: Aggression) Mind Map on Outline and evaluate evolutionary explanations of group display in humans, created by a a on 05/25/2016.

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Outline and evaluate evolutionary explanations of group display in humans
  1. Sports
    1. AO1
      1. Baron '77
        1. Different types of aggression within sport. HOSTILE: primary intention of the behaviour is to cause harm to the opponent. INSTRUMENTAL: behaviour is clearly likely to cause harm, but its intention is to achieve something else (e.g. score a goal)
        2. Xenophobia
          1. Wilson '75
            1. Xenophobia has been seen in virtually every group of animals displaying higher forms of social organisation
              1. Natural selection favours those that are altruistic towards their own group but intolerant to others
              2. Shaw and Wong '89
                1. Increases the chance of surviving so being able to PASS ON GENES
                  1. Mechanisms of xenophobia allows suspicion towards outsiders, helping to avoid attack
                  2. MacDonald '92
                    1. It is safer to overestimate a threat by exaggerating the negative stereotypes than to underestimate a threat
                    2. Podaliri and Balestri '98
                      1. Found evidence of xenophobic tendencies in Italian Football Crowds
                    3. Territoriality
                      1. Huntingford and Turner
                        1. Territorial behaviour is used by many animal species and involves threat displays towards outsiders
                        2. Neave and Wolfson
                          1. Football teams are more likely to win at home games as the players were found to have a surge of testosterone before the match
                            1. Thought that this is related to an evolved drive to defend their home territory, which leads to aggressive displays
                      2. AO2
                        1. Young '93
                          1. Increase in violence may be due to increasing financial incentives to win
                          2. Xenophobia
                            1. Foldesi '96
                              1. Found a relationship between xenophobic behaviour at Hungarian football matches and overall crowd violence
                            2. Territoriality
                              1. Lewis '05
                                1. For football teams, crowd support was named as the most significant factor in contributing to a home advantage, as fans felt responsible for inspiring their team to win and distracting the opposition
                                2. Pollard and Pollard '05
                                  1. Even small crowds contribute to the home advantage
                                  2. Moore and Brylinsky
                                    1. Found that American Basketball teams actually scored more points on average during games where there was no crowd (which was due to an outbreak of measles which meant no crowds could gather)
                              2. Warfare
                                1. AO1
                                  1. Divale & Harris
                                    1. War is supposedly caused due to there being more males than females in society, so males increase their aggression to win a mate
                                      1. This increases the likelihood of having offspring to pass on your alleles
                                        1. This is because in societies with frequent warfare, males are more likely to escape infanticide than females
                                      2. Aggression also earns respect and status within groups
                                        1. This increases the chance of getting protection within the group society, and also increases the likelihood of being able to have children to pass on genes
                                      3. AO2
                                        1. Palmer and Tilly '95
                                          1. Male youth street gang members have more sexual partners than ordinary young males
                                          2. Leunissen & Van Vugt
                                            1. Military men have greater sex appeal but only if they have been observed showing bravery in combat
                                            2. LeBlanc & Register
                                              1. Warfare and aggressive displays are a consequence of environmental changes such as rising populations and dwindling food supplies
                                              2. Limitations of the theory
                                                1. Any theory for human aggression that looks towards increasing the chance of mating as the main explanation for violence fails to consider why the violence humans show in warfare is SO severe compared with other species that compete for mates
                                            3. IDA
                                              1. Real Life Application
                                                1. Sheffield United: Football unites, Racism divides campaign aims to tackle racism within football in England
                                                  1. Displays of aggression before sporting games (e.g. Samoan Rugby team's Manu Siva Tau war chant, New Zealand All Black's Hakka)
                                                  2. Gender Bias
                                                    1. Adams '83
                                                      1. Females warriors are pretty much unheard of within most societies
                                                        1. This could be due to the fact that women have less to gain from fighting within warfare, and a lot more to lose (in terms of loss of the reproductive ability)
                                                        2. Our understanding of group displays of aggression is therefore limited solely to the behaviour of males
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