Chondricthyes - Cartilaginous Fish

Litty Carter
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Vertebrate Zoology (Fish) Mind Map on Chondricthyes - Cartilaginous Fish, created by Litty Carter on 04/24/2013.

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Litty Carter
Created by Litty Carter over 6 years ago
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Chondricthyes - Cartilaginous Fish
1 Paleozoic Radiation
1.1 Amphystylic jaw support
1.1.1 Chondrocranium fixed to palatoquadrate
1.2 Body supported - Notochord + neural arches and cartilage
1.2.1 Paired fins - fixed (no rotation)
1.3 Limited scales
1.4 3 cusped teeth
1.4.1 Tooth whorl - lots of new teeth developing, rotation to the front then falling out
1.4.1.1 present in all extant sharks
2 Mesozoic Radiation
2.1 Hybodonts
2.2 Heterodont dentition - posterior teeth
2.2.1 In batteries - several teeth whorl
2.3 Pectoral fins rotate - not fixed
2.4 Ceratotrichia
2.4.1 Proteinaceous flexible fin rays
2.4.1.1 Curve base to tip and front to back
2.4.2 Produce lift and stability - greater thrust and counteract sinking
2.5 Amphistylic jaw support
2.5.1 Terminal mouth
3 Extant radiation - sharks skate and rays (elasmobranchs)
3.1 Solid, calcified vertebrae
3.2 thicker, complex enamel teeth
3.3 Ventral mouth - overhanging rostrum
3.4 From Triassic and earlier. Jurassic and cretaceous genera still here
3.5 ~815 spp - all marine
3.6 Cartilaginous skeleton
3.7 Tails
3.7.1 Heterocercal - vertabrae extend into lobe
3.7.2 Epicercal - Upper caudal lobe larger
3.7.3 Hypocercal - Lower caudal lobe larger
3.8 Placoid scales - modified to form teeth
3.9 Lateral line system - sensory
3.10 Ampullae of Lorenzini
3.10.1 Electroreceptors in head and pectoral fins
3.10.2 Pits below epidermis containing conductive glycoprotein
3.11 SHARKS
3.11.1 ~360 spp 2 lineages(poss4+)
3.11.1.1 SQUALOIDS (basking sharks, megamouth)
3.11.1.1.1 Deep cold water
3.11.1.2 GALEOIDS (Requiems, hammerheads)
3.11.1.2.1 warm shallow seas
3.11.2 Hyostylic Jaw Suspension
3.11.2.1 Cranial kinesis. Elastic ligaments
3.11.2.2 Platoquadrate teeth - recurved, stout, highly serrated
3.11.3 Reproduction
3.11.3.1 Internal fertilisation
3.11.3.2 Small numbers - well provisioned offspring
3.11.3.3 Lecithotropy - yolk in egg
3.11.3.4 Matrotrophy - reproductive tract
3.11.3.5 Oviparous - mermaid's purse
3.11.3.6 Ovoviparous - egg retention, eggs move to uterus, hatch & stay
3.11.3.6.1 Milky substance in uterus, pass through offsprings' mouth and gills for nourishment.
3.12 BATOIDS (skates and rays)
3.12.1 Skates - thick, paired dorsal fins, caudal fin, oviparous
3.12.2 Rays - whiplike, serrated dorsal barbs, viviparous
3.12.3 ~456 spp -early divergence from sharks
3.12.3.1 Dorsoventrally flattened - bottom dwellers
3.12.4 Generating electricity
3.12.4.1 intracellular fluid 84mV -ve extracellular. Na+ exclusion. Smooth surface depolarises. Rough surface stays -84mV. Na+ flows -> +67mV
3.12.5 Teeth - flat crowned plates
3.12.5.1 Specialised mouth - mollusc and crustacean diet
3.12.6 enlarged pectoral fins - thrust
3.13 HOLOCEPHALIANS
3.13.1 ~35spp
3.13.1.1 diverged from sharks ~360mya
3.13.2 Anatomically odd mix
3.13.3 Shark like & boney fish
3.13.4 ground dwelling, deep water.
3.13.5 Autostylic jaw - mixed diet, fused tooth plates
3.13.6 Oviparous - cephalic claspers
3.13.7 poisonous spines

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