B1 Biology

Emily Needham
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

The first module of the Year 10 Biology Higher tier. Key points from this module are bought together in a mind map. Suggested use for revision.

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Emily Needham
Created by Emily Needham over 5 years ago
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B1 Biology
1 B1a Fitness and Health
1.1 Measuring Health
1.1.1 BMI (Body Mass Index)
1.1.1.1 Indicator of whether your weight is ideal or not in terms of your height
1.1.1.2 Weight (kg) divided by height (m squared)
1.1.1.2.1 Underweight= Below 18 Normal= 18-24 Overweight= 25-30 Obese= 30+
1.1.2 EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)
1.1.2.1 How much protein you require in your diet
1.1.2.1.1 Two protein types
1.1.2.1.1.1 Second Class (plants)
1.1.2.1.1.2 First Class (animals)
1.1.2.1.2 Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease)
1.1.2.2 Mass(kg)x 0.6
1.2 Obesity
1.2.1 Can cause...
1.2.1.1 Stroke
1.2.1.2 Cancer
1.2.1.3 Heart Disease
1.2.1.4 Arthritis
1.2.1.5 Type 2 diabetes
1.3 Blood Pressure
1.3.1 Systolic and Diastolic
1.3.1.1 Systolic= pressure created in arteries when heart contracts
1.3.1.2 Diastolic= pressure created in arteries when heart relaxes
1.3.2 Caused by....
1.3.2.1 Salt
1.3.2.2 smoking
1.3.2.3 Obesity
1.3.2.4 alcohol (long term)
1.3.2.5 lack of exercise
1.3.2.6 stress
1.3.2.7 saturated fat
1.3.2.7.1 promote LDL production
1.3.2.7.1.1 Causes plaque build up in arteries
1.3.2.7.1.2 LDL= bad cholesterol
1.3.2.7.2 Polyunsaturated fat
1.3.2.7.2.1 promotes HDL (good cholesterol)
1.3.2.7.2.2 stops plaque build up
2 B1b Non Infectious Disease
2.1 Cannot be caught by other organisms or be created by microbes
2.2 Causes...
2.2.1 mutations in DNA
2.2.2 Diet
2.2.3 Body parts disfunctional
2.3 reduce the risk by...
2.3.1 Exercise
2.3.2 Reducing alcohol intake
2.3.3 Healthy diet
2.3.4 Not Smoking
2.3.5 Healthy weight
2.4 Examples
2.4.1 Ricketts
2.4.2 Heart Disease
2.4.3 Cancer
2.4.3.1 Benign Tumour
2.4.3.1.1 passive
2.4.3.1.2 Less likely to spread
2.4.3.2 Malignant Tumour
2.4.3.2.1 aggressive
2.4.3.2.2 more likely to break up and spread
3 B1c Infectious Disease
3.1 Pathogens
3.1.1 Fungus
3.1.2 Bacteria
3.1.3 Virus
3.1.4 Protozoa
3.2 Organisms involved
3.2.1 Vector
3.2.1.1 Spreads disease without being affected
3.2.2 Host
3.2.2.1 organism affected by parasite
3.2.3 parasite
3.2.3.1 lives off another organism
3.3 Body defends against it by...
3.3.1 Tears
3.3.2 cillia and mucus
3.3.3 skin
3.3.4 scabs
3.3.5 stomach acid
3.4 Can be spread...
3.4.1 through the air
3.4.2 through breathing
3.4.3 Through touch
3.4.4 through bodily fluids
3.4.5 through ingestion
3.4.6 through water
3.4.7 through animals
4 B1d The Nervous System
4.1 The eye
4.1.1 Parts
4.1.1.1 Lens
4.1.1.2 Pupil
4.1.1.3 Conjunctiva
4.1.1.4 Cornea
4.1.1.5 Iris
4.1.1.6 Cilliary Muscle
4.1.1.7 suspensory ligament
4.1.1.8 Retina
4.1.1.9 fovea
4.1.1.10 optic nerve
4.1.1.11 Blind Spot
4.1.2 Monocular
4.1.2.1 Eyes on side
4.1.2.2 Wider field of view but less focusing
4.1.2.3 found in prey organisms
4.1.2.4 eg. rabbits, zebras and sheep
4.1.3 Binocular
4.1.3.1 eyes at front
4.1.3.2 good focusing and distance judgement as smaller field of view
4.1.3.3 eg. humans, lions and dogs
4.1.4 Correcting vision
4.1.4.1 Short sightedness
4.1.4.1.1 Concave lens corrects
4.1.4.2 Long Sightedness
4.1.4.2.1 convex lens creates
4.2 Nerves
4.2.1 Central Nervous system
4.2.1.1 Brain
4.2.1.2 Spinal chord
4.2.2 Neurones
4.2.2.1 Sensory
4.2.2.2 relay
4.2.2.3 motor
4.2.3 Voluntary actions
4.2.4 Involuntary actions
4.2.4.1 reflex arc
5 B1e Drugs
5.1 legal
5.1.1 Alcohol
5.1.1.1 Short term effects
5.1.1.1.1 Blurred vision
5.1.1.1.2 Impaired Speech, judgement and balance.
5.1.1.1.3 drowsiness and increased reaction times
5.1.1.2 long term effects
5.1.1.2.1 cirrhosis of the liver
5.1.1.2.2 brain damage
5.1.1.2.3 weight gain
5.1.1.2.4 fatty liver, heart disease, cancer etc.
5.1.2 tobacco
5.1.2.1 contains...
5.1.2.1.1 Carbon monoxide
5.1.2.1.1.1 heart rate increases
5.1.2.1.1.2 saturates red blood cells
5.1.2.1.1.2.1 not enough oxygen gets to cells
5.1.2.1.2 Nicotene
5.1.2.1.2.1 Addictive
5.1.2.1.2.2 increases heart rate
5.1.2.1.3 Particulates
5.1.2.1.3.1 collects in lung tissue
5.1.2.1.3.1.1 white cells ingest them and release enzyme
5.1.2.1.3.1.1.1 Enzyme damages alveoli
5.1.2.1.3.1.1.1.1 Leads to EMPHYSEMA
5.1.2.1.4 Tar
5.1.2.1.4.1 irritates airways
5.1.2.1.4.2 contains 1000s of chemicals
5.1.2.1.4.3 carcinogenic
5.1.2.1.4.4 destroys cillia
5.2 Illegal
5.2.1 Class...
5.2.1.1 A
5.2.1.1.1 heroin
5.2.1.1.2 cocaine
5.2.1.1.3 LSD
5.2.1.2 B
5.2.1.2.1 cannabis
5.2.1.2.2 amphetamines
5.2.1.3 C
5.2.1.3.1 tranquilisers eg. ketamin
5.2.1.3.2 painkillers
6 B1f Control
6.1 Body Temperature
6.1.1 37 degrees celcius
6.1.2 hot weather
6.1.2.1 Vaso dilation
6.1.2.1.1 blood vessels expand
6.1.2.1.1.1 lose body heat
6.1.2.2 heat lost by radiation
6.1.2.3 sweating cools skin
6.1.3 cold weather
6.1.3.1 Vaso constriction
6.1.3.1.1 blood vessels get smaller
6.1.3.1.1.1 keep body heat in
6.1.3.2 little heat loss from radiation
6.1.3.3 sweating stops
6.2 Blood Sugar levels
6.2.1 Insulin converts glucose to glycogen
6.2.2 Diabetes
6.2.2.1 Type 1
6.2.2.1.1 pancreas can't create insulin
6.2.2.1.2 Insulin Injections, pancreas stimulating drugs, balanced diet and exercise
6.2.2.2 Type 2
6.2.2.2.1 body's cells don't respond to insulin
6.2.2.2.2
6.3 Carbon Dioxide
6.3.1 breathing rate increases/ decreases depending on level of Carbon Dioxide in blood
7 B1g Plant growth
7.1 Plants respond to stimuli
7.1.1 PHOTOTROPISM (response to light)
7.1.1.1 shoots= positively phototrophic
7.1.1.2 roots= negatively phototrophic
7.1.1.3 Plants bend towards light because of auxins (plant hormones
7.1.2 GEOTROPISM (response to gravity)
7.1.2.1 Roots= positively Geotropic
7.1.2.2 Shoots= negatively geotropic
7.2 Uses of plant hormones
7.2.1 root hormone- helps new cuttings make roots
7.2.2 fruit ripening properly
7.2.3 control and break dormancy
8 B1h Variation and Inheritance
8.1 Characteristics
8.1.1 Genetic
8.1.1.1 Eye Colour
8.1.1.2 tongue rolling
8.1.1.3 Hair colour
8.1.2 Environmental
8.1.2.1 scars
8.1.2.2 language
8.1.2.3 Accent
8.1.3 Both
8.1.3.1 weight
8.1.3.2 sporting ability
8.1.3.3 intelligence
8.2 Genes and Chromosomes
8.2.1 humans have 23 matching pairs of chromosomes
8.2.1.1 made from DNA
8.2.1.2 thread like structures in a cells nucleus
8.2.2 Gene is a section of a chromosome
8.2.2.1 controls development of a characteristic
8.3 Genetic Variation
8.3.1 caused by...
8.3.1.1 mutations (change in base sequence)
8.3.1.2 gamete formation
8.3.1.3 fertilisation
8.4 Inheritance
8.4.1 Inheritance of gender
8.4.1.1 Male
8.4.1.1.1 carry XY chromosomes
8.4.1.1.2 A Sperm carrying a Y chromosome ferttilises an egg
8.4.1.1.2.1 Y chromosome carries SRY which causes testes to develop in an XY embryo
8.4.1.2 Female
8.4.1.2.1 A sperm carrying an X chromosome fertilises an egg
8.4.1.2.2 Carry XX chromosomes
8.4.2 Dominant and recessive alleles
8.4.3 genotypes and phenotypes
8.4.4 Inherited Disorders
8.4.4.1 homozygous= both alleles are the same
8.4.4.2 heterozygous= 2 different alleles
8.4.4.3 examples
8.4.4.3.1 Colour blindness
8.4.4.3.2 Huntingtons
8.4.4.3.3 Downs Syndrome
8.4.4.3.4 Cystic Fibrosis

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