Biology B1, B2, B3

Fred Gill
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Biology B1, B2, B3, created by Fred Gill on 02/19/2014.

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Fred Gill
Created by Fred Gill over 5 years ago
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Biology B1, B2, B3
1 B2
1.1 Classification and living together
1.1.1 Organisms classified using natural systems, giving information about evoulutionary relationships
1.1.2 Similar organisms compete for food.
1.1.3 Organisms clasified into groups starts with kingdom ends with species
1.2 Energy flow and recycling
1.2.1 energy lost each stage of food chain
1.2.2 Food chaind limited to small number tropic levels
1.2.3 Recycling of carbon involves:photosynthesis, feeding, respiration, decomposition
1.2.4 The recycling of bacteria involves 4 types of bacteria
1.2.5 Pyramids of biomas and numbers show feeding relationships
1.3 Adaption and natural selection
1.3.1 Darwins theory was widely critisised but now it's widely accepted
1.3.2 heat loss on organisms depend on surface area to volume ratio
1.3.3 Darwin - Natural selection. Involves variation, competition, survival of fittest and selective reproduction
1.3.4 Organisms in hot dry areas adapt to: Increace heat loss, move on sand, lack of water
1.3.5 Organisms in cold areas adapt to: keep warm, move in snow
1.3.6 Natural selection today: Warfarin resistance in rats. colour of peppered moths
1.4 Population, Pollution and Sustainability
1.4.1 Conservation is important to: protect food, prevent damage to food chains, protect organisms for medicuses, protect habitats for people to visit
1.4.2 Heat loss from organisms depends on their surface area to volume ratio
1.4.3 Human population is increacing exeptionaly leads to: CO2 (global warming), sulfur dioxide (acid rain), CFC's break down ozone layer
1.4.4 remove waste, make food, suply energy sustainably. Helps conserve habitats and organisms
1.5 I want to fill space.It just looks wrong without this
2 B1
2.1 Diet and Exercise
2.1.1 Fit - Ability to do exercise. Healthy - free from disease
2.1.2 Balanced diet vary according to age, gender, activity, religion and choice BMI indicates if you're overweight EAR used to calculate protein requirements. Depends on age, pregnancy lactation
2.1.3 Blood pressure - 2 readings. Diastolic and systolic fat, smoking, alcohol increase blood pressure High blood pressure damages the brain amd kidneys
2.1.4 Hey teacher, howdy doo
2.2 Drugs and disease
2.2.1 Class A, Class B, Class C, Legal
2.2.2 Alcohol causes cirrhosis of the liver
2.2.3 Deppresant and stimulus drugs affect nervous system by affecting transmission across synapses
2.2.4 Changes in lifestyle reduce risk of cancer
2.2.5 Mosquito is vector carries malaria
2.2.6 Plasodium is a pathogen causes maleria. Paracite, humans are the host
2.3 Homeostasis and Plant hormones
2.3.1 Homeostasis is maintaining a constant internal environment
2.3.2 Automatic systems in body keep water, temp, co2 levelsconstant
2.3.3 Immunisation protects against certain diseases by using harmless pathogens
2.3.4 insulin controlls bloodsugar. it converts excess blood glucose into glycogen
2.3.5 Auxins are involved in phototrophism and geotrophism
2.3.6 Auxins are a group of plant hormones They shoot curvature by cell elongation
2.3.7 Plant hormones have comercial uses. (weed killer, rooting powder, controll of fruit ripening
2.4 The Nervous System
2.4.1 a nerve impulse travels along the axon of a neurone
2.4.2 Light rays are refracted as they pass through the cornea and lens
2.4.3 The eye accomodates by altering the shape of the lens
2.4.4 A neurotransmiter substance differs across a synapse, so the nerve impulse can pass to the next neurone
2.4.5 Monocular vision has a wider field pf view but poorer distance judgement then binocular vision A spinal reflex invilves a receptor, sencory, relay and motor neurons and an effector Long and short sight is caused by the eyeball or lens being the wrong shape
2.4.6 A nerve impule travels along the axon of a neurone
2.5 Variation and Inheritance
2.5.1 Alleles are different versions of the same gene
2.5.2 Sex is determined by sex chromosones, XX in female, YY in male
2.5.3 Most faulty alleles are recessive
2.5.4 Dominant alleles are exposed if present, resccesive alleles are expressed in the adstence of dominant allele
2.5.5 Being homozygous is having two identical alleles.
2.5.6 Being heterozygous is having two different alleles
3 B3
3.1 DNA, Proteins and Mutations
3.1.1 Science
3.1.2 Mutations may lead to the production of different proteins. This is because a change in bases in DNA can change the amino acid sequence
3.1.3 Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids
3.1.4 Proteins can be structual, hormones, carrier molecules or enzymes
3.1.5 Enzyme activity is effected by pH and temperature. This is due to: lower collision rates at lower temperatures, denaturing at extremes of pH and high temperatures
3.1.6 enzymes are specific and work by a 'lock and key' mechanism
3.1.7 protein synthesis occours on ribosomes in cytoplasm
3.1.8 the code needed to produce a protein is carried from the DNA to the ribosomes by a molecule called mRNA
3.1.9 Chromasones are long coils of DNA, divided up into regions called genes
3.1.10 Proteins are coded for by DNA. The base sequence codes for the order of amino acids Each emino acid is coded for by three bases
3.1.11 DNA looks like a ladder that's twisted
3.2 Cell Devision and Growth
3.2.1 Gameses are produced by meisois
3.2.2 In meiosis, the chromasone number is halved and each cell is geneticaly different
3.2.3 New cells of growth are produced by mitosis. The cells made by this are geneticaly identical
3.2.4 There are a number of differences between plant growth and animal growth
3.2.5 Growth can be measured by a change in wet mas, dry mas or length. Each method has advantages and disadvantages but dry mas is the best measure
3.2.6 Being multicellular allows organisms to be larger, use cell differentiation, be more complex
3.3 Respiration and The Circulation
3.3.1 Arteries have thick elastic walls and carry blood away from the heart
3.3.2 Veins have large lumens and valves and carry blood back to the heart
3.3.3 Capillaries are permable and link arteries to veins
3.3.4 Anerobic respiration produces lactic acid which: builds up in muscles causing fatigue, acuts as oxygen debt and had to be broken down in the liver after exercise
3.3.5 Anerobic respiration takes place during hard exercise when there is insignificant oxygen there
3.3.6 The equasion for anerobic respiration is: Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water
3.3.7 Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body and are especially addapted for this function
3.3.8 THe heart has four chambers, vand is part of a double circulatory system
3.4 Changing genes and cloning
3.4.1 Gene therapy involves changing a persons genes to try and cure disorders
3.4.2 Genetic enginereing can be used to produce useful products but raises some ethical issues
3.4.3 A selective breeding program can produce organsims with desired characteristics but may reduce gene pull leading to problems of inbreeding
3.4.4 Cloning plants is easier then cloning animals because many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate
3.4.5 Plants can be cloned by tissue culture, which provides a number of benifits
3.4.6 New cloning technology will: produce a number of benifits, involve risks, raise ethical issues
3.4.7 Dolly the sheep was produced by the process of neculear transfer - this involves placing the nucleus of a body cell into an egg
4 C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO + 6H2O

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