Topic 1.1-transport around the body

victoria.graham96
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Biology Mind Map on Topic 1.1-transport around the body, created by victoria.graham96 on 04/25/2013.

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victoria.graham96
Created by victoria.graham96 over 6 years ago
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Topic 1.1-transport around the body
1 Water in living organisms
1.1 Dipole
1.1.1 Separation of charge
1.1.1.1 Slightly positive side, slightly negative side
1.2 Hydrogen bond
1.2.1 Weak electrostatic attraction
1.2.2 Attraction between oxygen and hydrogen in different molecules
1.3 Solvent
1.3.1 Other substances dissolve it
1.4 Expulsions
1.4.1 Tiny droplets of one liquid suspended in another
1.5 Suspensions
1.5.1 Solid mixed with liquid
1.5.2 Wil separates out if not constantly stirred
1.6 Surface tension
1.6.1 Property that seems like surface covered in thin elastic skin
1.7 Anmphoteric
1.7.1 Can act as acid or a base
1.7.1.1 Acid: forms h+ ions and donates protons
1.7.1.2 Base: forms OH- ions and accepts protons
2 Blood circulation
2.1 Circulation systems
2.1.1 Single circulation
2.1.1.1 In fish (simple)
2.1.2 Double circulation
2.1.2.1 Involves 2 circulatory systems
2.1.2.2 Systemic circulation
2.1.2.2.1 Carries oxygenated blood from heart to cells
2.1.2.2.2 Carries deoxygenated blood back to heart
2.1.2.3 Pulmonary circulation
2.1.2.3.1 Carries oxygenated blood back to heart
2.1.2.3.2 Carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs
2.2 The blood vessels
2.2.1 Arteries
2.2.1.1 Carry blood away from heart
2.2.1.2 Carries oxygenated blood
2.2.1.2.1 Accept pulmonary artery and umbilical artery during pregnancy
2.2.1.3 Lumen gets smaller further away from heart
2.2.1.3.1 Furthest from heart are arterioles
2.2.1.4 External layer of tough tissue
2.2.1.5 Smooth lining around lumen
2.2.1.6 Middle layers contain
2.2.1.6.1 Elastic fibres
2.2.1.6.1.1 More nearest the heart
2.2.1.6.2 Smooth muscle
2.2.1.6.2.1 More further away from heart
2.2.1.7 Small lumen
2.2.2 Capillaries
2.2.2.1 Arteriolar feed into them
2.2.2.2 Branch between cells
2.2.2.3 Very thin cell wall
2.2.2.4 Simple
2.2.2.5 Carry originated blood at first
2.2.3 Veins
2.2.3.1 Carry blood back to heart
2.2.3.2 Carrie deoxygenated blood
2.2.3.2.1 Accept pulmonary vein and umbilical vein
2.2.3.3 Venules lead from capillaries and form 2 veins
2.2.3.3.1 Inferior vena cave
2.2.3.3.1.1 From lower parts of body
2.2.3.3.2 Superior vena cava
2.2.3.3.2.1 From upper arts of body
2.2.3.4 Tough outer layer
2.2.3.4.1 Mainly collagen fibres
2.2.3.5 Smooth inner surface
2.2.3.6 Thin layer of smooth muscle. Few elastic fibres
2.2.3.7 Relatively large lumen
2.2.3.8 Have semi lunar valves
2.2.3.8.1 Blood can pass towards heart but can't go back
3 The role of blood
3.1 Circulation
3.1.1 Passage of blood through vessels
3.2 Components of blood
3.2.1 Plasma
3.2.1.1 Main component of blood
3.2.1.2 Contains frininogen
3.2.1.3 Consists largely of water
3.2.2 Erythrocytes
3.2.2.1 Red blood cells
3.2.2.2 Contain harmoglobin
3.2.2.2.1 Red pigment that carries oxygen
3.2.2.3 Formed in red bone marrow
3.2.3 Leucocytes
3.2.3.1 White blood cells
3.2.3.2 Can change there shapes
3.2.3.3 Defend against disease
3.2.3.3.1 Make antibodies
3.2.3.3.1.1 Destroy pathogens
3.2.3.3.2 Make antitoxins
3.2.3.3.2.1 Neutralize poisons (toxins)
3.2.3.3.3 Go through phagocytosis
3.2.3.3.3.1 Engulf and digest pathogens
3.2.4 Platelets
3.2.4.1 Tiny fragments of large cells called megakaryocytes
3.2.4.2 Found in bone marrow
3.2.4.3 Involved in blood clotting
3.3 Pathogens
3.3.1 Disease causing bacteria/viruses
4 The blood clotting mechanism
4.1 Damaged tissue
4.1.1 Releases platelets
4.1.1.1 Releases thromboplastin
4.1.1.1.1 Catalysis prothrombin to..
4.1.1.1.1.1 Thrombin
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Catalyses fibrinogen to...
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Fibrin
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Mesh of fibres
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Traps blood cells and more platelets
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Forms clot
4.1.1.1.1.2 Ca2+ ions have to be present
5 Transport systems
5.1 Diffusion
5.1.1 Free movement of particles down a concentration gradient
5.2 Concentration gradient
5.2.1 From high concentration to low concentration
5.3 Hormone
5.3.1 Chemical (insulin or adrenalin)
5.4 Mass transport system
5.4.1 The flow of substances with a mechanism/pump
5.5 Osmosis
5.5.1 The movement of water along concentration gradient through a partially permeable membrane
5.6 Active transport
5.6.1 Energy used to move substances against a concentration gradient
6 Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide
6.1 Oxygen
6.1.1 Haemoglobin picks up 4 oxygen molecules
6.1.2 Haemoglobin in red blood cells
6.1.3 Oxygen moves from lungs to red blood cells by diffusion
6.1.4 Keeps steep concentration gradient so more oxygen can diffuse
6.1.5 Diffuses into body cells
6.2 carbon dioxide
6.2.1 Waste CO2 diffuses into blood from cells
6.2.2 Reacts with water to form H2CO3
6.2.3 Separates to form ions H+ and HCO3-
6.2.4 HCO3- diffuse out of blood cells and Cl ions move in
6.2.5 CO2 diffuse out of blood into lungs

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