Internal Factors, Ethnic Differences in Achievement

MeganAbigail
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

AS Levels Sociology Mind Map on Internal Factors, Ethnic Differences in Achievement, created by MeganAbigail on 04/25/2013.

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MeganAbigail
Created by MeganAbigail over 6 years ago
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Internal Factors, Ethnic Differences in Achievement
1 Labelling and Teacher Racism
1.1 Black students are often labelled as disruptive and Asians as passive, negative labels cause teachers to treat students differently leading to failure
1.2 Gillborn
1.2.1 Found that teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for the same behaviour
1.3 Bourne
1.3.1 Found that schools usually see black boys as a threat and label them negatively, leading eventually to exclusion
1.4 Asian Students
1.4.1 Wright
1.4.1.1 Study on a multi ethnic primary school
1.4.1.1.1 Teachers assumed Asian students would have a poor grasp on English language and would talk to them in simplistic ways and left them out of group talks
1.4.1.1.1.1 Asian pupils also felt isolated when teachers showed disapproval of their customs or mis pronounced their names
1.4.1.1.1.1.1 Teachers didn't see them as a threat, but as a problem they could ignore
2 Pupil responses and subcultures
2.1 Rejecting negative labels
2.1.1 Fuller
2.1.1.1 Studied black girls who were high achievers in a school that usually placed black pupils in low streams, the black girls sought achievement from exams
2.1.1.1.1 The girls spoke to other black girls and made the apperence of not doing work when they were, they saw teachers as racist
2.1.1.1.1.1 They were able to maintain a positive self image by relying on their own efforts and not accepting the negative teacher label
2.2 Failed strategies to avoid racism
2.2.1 Mirza
2.2.1.1 Studied black girls who failed to achieve as coping strategies restricted oppertunities and resulted in underachievement
2.2.1.2 Three types of teacher
2.2.1.2.1 The Colour Blind
2.2.1.2.1.1 Teachers who believe all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged
2.2.1.2.2 The Liberal Chauvinist
2.2.1.2.2.1 Teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived and who have low expectations of them
2.2.1.2.3 The Overt Racists
2.2.1.2.3.1 Teachers who believe black pupils are inferior and actively discriminate against them
2.3 Variety of Boys' responses
2.3.1 Sewell
2.3.1.1 Rebels
2.3.1.1.1 Most visible and influential group. Only a small minority. Often were excluded. Rejected school rules and values.
2.3.1.1.1.1 Based black masculinity on sexual experience and virility. Were contemptuous of white boys who they saw as effeminate. Dismissive of conformist blacks
2.3.1.2 The Conformists
2.3.1.2.1 Were the largest group. Keen to succeed. Accepted school rules and values. Had friends from different ethnic groups. Not part of a subculture.
2.3.1.3 Retreatists
2.3.1.3.1 Were a tiny minority. Disconnected from both school and black subcultures. Were despised by the Rebels
2.3.1.4 Innovators
2.3.1.4.1 Second largest group. Pro education but anti school. Valued success but didn't use teachers for approval. Conformed only as far as work was concerned
2.3.2 Only minority were rebels but teachers saw all this way. Role of media creating a rebel role model
3 Ethnocentric Curriculum
3.1 Judging things in a biased way from the viewpoint of one particular culture
3.2 David
3.2.1 Describes national curriculum as Specifically British. teaches culture of host community. largely ignores non European languages, literature and music
3.3 Ball
3.3.1 National curriculum ignores cultural and ethnic diversity. Promotes attitude of "little Englandism"
3.4 Criticism
3.4.1 If an ethnocentric curriculum leads to underachievement how does that explain why Chinese and Indian students are above the national average
4 Institutional Racism
4.1 Troyna and Williams
4.1.1 Schools and colleges routinely discriminate against ethnic minorities
4.2 Highlight the meagre provision of Asian languages as an example of institutional racism
5 Selection and Segregation
5.1 Gillborn
5.1.1 Marketisation has given schools more scope to be selective and negative stereotypes can influence who is admitted to a school
5.2 Gerwitz
5.2.1 Active choice by parents can cause segregation.
5.2.2 Study of Gorse and Flightpath
5.2.2.1 Gorse attracted mainly Asian intake. Many whites refused to consider it because of this. Opting for flightpath. Asian parents saw Gorse as safe.

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