Forensic Science and Detection Methods

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Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Forensic Science and Detection Methods, created by parislilliancart on 02/22/2014.

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parislilliancart
Created by parislilliancart over 5 years ago
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Forensic Science and Detection Methods
1 Tool Marks and Impression Evidence
1.1 Lifted using casting
1.1.1 If can match tool to several crimes -> builds intelligence
1.1.2 Casts analysed using comparison microscope
1.1.2.1 test mark v.s. suspected mark from scene i.e. known v.s. unknown
1.1.2.1.1 Rising need for a tool mark database?
1.2 Class characteristics Individual Characteristics
1.2.1 Size of head of the screwdriver; type of instrument used
1.2.2 damage; metal striations; colour (i.e. has item been painted?)
1.3 Types of tool mark
1.3.1 static/compression (indented)
1.3.2 Dynamic/grinding (slides across surface)
1.3.3 Cutting tool marks (combination of compression/sliding)
1.3.4 Multistroke i.e. saw
1.4 Manufacturing -> striations due to manufacturing process
1.5 Very common in volume crime -> not utilised to the best of its ability
1.6 Interpretation - strong evidence to refute/corroborate that a particular tool made a particular mark
1.7 Footwear -> Cinderella searching i.e. forensic podiatry => usually classed as associative evidence
1.7.1 Very neglected form of evidence i.e. no database -> shoes change regularly (based on style or fashion -> population demographics)
1.7.1.1 Can confirm or refute stories
1.7.2 3D Impressions -> may not get individualising details -> can preserve with hairspray
1.7.3 2D impressions -> ESLA; gel lifts; powders
1.7.3.1 Types of class/individual characteristics: temporary accidental (i.e. a stone); damage defects; mould anomaly/defect/ design variation
1.7.4 Eliminate police officers/paramedics etc. then document remainder of marks
1.7.4.1 Can determine: shoe size; gait; number of people present. Also useful in tracking
1.7.5 Footwear from all suspects usually seized in most crimes to be printed
2 DNA and DNA Analysis
3 Bodily Fluids
4 Light
5 Forensic provision, processes and application
5.1 Observations -> Hypotheses -> Inferences. Limits of knowledge => bias and error
6 Trace
6.1 Type
6.1.1 4 main categories: Hair and Fibres; Glass; Paint; Biological evidence -> but there are lots more!
6.2 Location and Amount
6.2.1 Transferance and Persistence
6.3 Circumstances
6.3.1 Looking for links between: Victim + scene/Victim +suspect/Suspect +scene
6.3.1.1 Want to establish relationships and contexrt
6.4 Significance and probative value
6.5 LOCARD'S PRINCIPLE OF EXCHANGE
7 History
7.1 The Washing Away of Wrongs (1247) - Song Chi -> first documented use of forensic entomology -> basics of forensic process
7.2 Philosophy of the Enlightenment -> scientific revolution between C16th and C18th. Move away from religious doctrine to science and evidence -> better society!
7.3 Epistemology v.s. Ontology -> theory of knowledge and its methods, validity and scope v.s. the nature of being
8 Case Studies
8.1 Sarah Payne

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