Topic 5: Organic Chemistry

Alice Clayden
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on Topic 5: Organic Chemistry, created by Alice Clayden on 04/25/2013.

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Alice Clayden
Created by Alice Clayden over 6 years ago
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Topic 5: Organic Chemistry
1 Homologous series:alkanes/ alkenes- The physical properties gradually change as the carbon chains get longer e.g. alkane's boiling points get higher
2 Alcohols: organic compounds. They all contain the group of atoms -OH (hydroxl) this is the functional group
2.1 Properties: alcohols that have small molecules e.g. methanol, ethanol and propanol have characteristic odours
2.1.1 They react with oxygen to form carboxylic acids, they react with carboxylic acids to form esters and water.
2.1.1.1 Ethanol + Oxygen > Ethanoic acid (vinegar) + water
2.1.1.2 Ethanol + Ethanoic acid > Ehtyl Ethanoate + water
2.1.1.2.1 methonoic acid + propanol > pehtyl methanoate + water
2.1.1.3 red wine vinegar
2.2 effect of alcoholic drinks (ethanol)- defiency in vitamin B, decreased iron levels, liver damage, destruction of brain cells, risk of cancer etc..
2.3 uses: making esters- sweet smelling fragrances, emulsifiers, emollients, thickeners, solvents
3 Carboxylic acids are another homologous series, they all have the functional group - COOH (carboxyl)
3.1 Methanoic acid, Ethanoic acid, Propanoic acid
3.2 Properties: as the carbon atom chains get longer the acid changes from a colourless liquid to a waxy solid
3.2.1 the odour becomes less pungent, the solubility in water decreases/ becomes more imiscible
3.3 uses: solvents, medicine, food items e.g. vinegar (flavouring and preservative), soaps and detergents
4 Ethanol by fermentation: any substance that contains glucose can be fermented. To do this the sugar is mixed with yeast in the absence of air
4.1 Glucose + enzyme in yeast > ethanol + carbon dioxide
4.1.1 C6H12O6 (aq) > C2H5OH (aq) + CO2 (g)
4.2 Advantages- renewable sources are used (sugar), cheap labour is available, little energy used- temperature is 30-40' C
4.3 Disadvantages- land is needed to grow crops, CO2 is produced, batch production - alot of labour needed, slow reaction, low concentration of ethanol
5 Ethanol by hydration of Ethene : Ethene + water (as steam) < phosphoric acid>> Ethanol
5.1 C2H4 + H2O >>> C2H5OH
5.2 Advantages- continuous system, fewer workers needed, fast process, pure ethanol is produced
5.3 Disadvantages- uses non-renewable resources (crude oil), uses high amounts of energy- temperature is 300' C

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