chelseahope
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biology Mind Map on b5, created by chelseahope on 04/25/2013.

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chelseahope
Created by chelseahope over 6 years ago
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b5
1 how do organisms develop?
1.1 cell specialisation
1.1.1 start as zygotes
1.1.1.1 fertilised egg cell
1.1.2 make new cells through mitosis
1.1.2.1 this creates an embryo
1.1.3 cells change during mitosis to adapt to jobs
1.1.3.1 differentiated
1.1.4 red and white blood cells
1.1.4.1 red carries oxygen
1.1.4.1.1 surface area allows for efficient absorption
1.1.4.2 white is important for the immune system
1.1.4.2.1 fight pathogens
1.1.4.2.1.1 engulf them
1.1.4.2.1.2 produce antibodies
1.1.4.2.1.2.1 requires a lot of energy
1.2 how cells differentiate
1.2.1 only carries out jobs it is specialised to do
1.2.2 genes in the dna are turned on and off
1.2.3 dna
1.3 cell adaptations
1.3.1 unicellular
1.3.2 multicellular
1.3.3 specialised jobs
1.3.4 adapted to different fucntions
1.3.5 tissue - group of cells
1.3.6 organ is made up of tissues
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
4 stem cells
4.1 fertilisation
4.1.1 sex cells
4.1.1.1 sperm and eggs
4.1.1.2 fertilisation
4.1.1.3 haploid
4.1.2 fertilised sex cell is a zygote
4.1.3 turns into embryo
4.2 what are stem cells?
4.2.1 embryonic stem cells
4.2.1.1 before differentiation
4.2.2 adult stem cells
4.2.2.1 not differentiated
4.2.2.2 can be differentiated
4.3 the importance of stem cells
4.3.1 give rise to the entire body
4.3.2 can reproduce themselves
4.3.2.1 cell division
4.3.3 research
4.3.3.1 treatments
5 stem cells in plants
5.1 plant cells
5.1.1 palisade cells
5.1.1.1 top of leaves
5.1.1.1.1 get light
5.1.1.2 full of chloroplasts
5.1.2 xylem cells
5.1.2.1 carry water and mineral salts
5.1.2.2 form together to make long tubes
5.1.2.2.1 xylem tissue
5.1.3 phloem cells
5.2 cell division in plants
5.2.1 differentiated cells cannot divide anymore
5.2.2 cells in meristems can divide
5.2.3 divide by mitosis
5.2.3.1 become two identical daughter cells
5.2.3.1.1 separated by a cell plate that later becomes a cell wall
5.2.3.1.2 can either divide again or differentiate
5.3 cell specialization in plants
5.3.1 meristems
5.3.1.1 found in the tips of shoots, roots, buds and flowering parts
5.3.2 plants constantly grow
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
7 mitosis
7.1
7.2
7.3
8 plant clones
8.1 plants from cuttings
8.1.1 end of the shoot in moist earth
8.1.1.1 roots grow and a plant does too
8.1.2 exact copy/clone
8.2 tissue culture
8.2.1 saves time and money
8.2.2 take bits of plant tissue
8.2.2.1 from the root or stem
8.2.2.2 treat with enzymes to separate the cells
8.2.2.3 placed individually on nutrient jelly
8.2.2.3.1 contains plant hormones
8.3 tissue culture using meristem cells
8.3.1 auxins
8.3.1.1 chemical messages
8.3.1.1.1 coordinate growth
8.3.2 auxin effects all cells
8.3.2.1 elongates cells
9 plant development
9.1 how lights affect plants
9.2
9.3
10 meiosis
10.1
10.2
10.3

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