The Nervous System

sian.allison
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Science (Biology core) Mind Map on The Nervous System, created by sian.allison on 02/23/2014.

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sian.allison
Created by sian.allison over 5 years ago
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The Nervous System
1 Sense organs detect stimuli
1.1 A stimulus is a change in your environment
1.1.1 Light, sound, touch, pressure, chemical or a change in position or temperature
1.2 Five different sense organs eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin
1.2.1 contain different receptors. Receptors are groups of cells which are sensitive to a stimulus. They change stimulus energy (light energy) into electrical impulses
1.3 Sense organs and receptors dont get them mixed up: The eye is a sense organ - it contains light receptors. The ear is a sense organ it contains sound receptors
2 The five sense organs and the receptors that each contains:
2.1 Eyes
2.1.1 Light receptors - sensitive to light. These cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane (just like animal cells)
2.2 Ears
2.2.1 Sound receptors - sensitive to sound. Also "balance" receptors - sensitive to changes in position
2.3 Nose
2.3.1 Smell receptors - sensitive to chemical stimuli
2.4 Tongue
2.4.1 Taste receptors - sensitive to bitter, salt, sweet and sour, plus the taste of savoury things like monosodium glutamate (MSG) - chemical stimuli
2.5 Skin
2.5.1 Sensitive to touch, pressure, pain and temperature change
3 Neurones
3.1 Sensory neurones
3.1.1 The nerve cells that carry signals as electrical impulses from the receptors in the sense organs to the central nervous system
3.2 Relay neurones
3.2.1 The nerve cells that carry signals from sensory neurones to motor neurones
3.3 Motor neurones
3.3.1 The nerve cells that carry signals from the central nervous system to the effector muscles or glands
3.4 Effectors
3.4.1 Muscles and glands are known as effectors - they respond in different ways. Muscles contract in response to a nervous impulse, whereas glands secret hormones
4 The central nervous system coordinates a response
4.1 The CNS is where all the information from the sense organs is sent and where reflexes and actions are coordinated. This consists of the brain and spinal cord
4.2 Neurones (nerve cells) transmit the information (as electrical impulses) very quickly to and from the CNS
4.3 Instructions from the CNS are sent to the effectors (musles and glands) which respond accordingly

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