B4 The Processes of Life

theflyingduck
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Biology Mind Map on B4 The Processes of Life, created by theflyingduck on 04/28/2013.

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theflyingduck
Created by theflyingduck over 6 years ago
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B4 The Processes of Life
1 Cells
1.1 Animal Cells
1.1.1 Cytoplasm
1.1.1.1 Where most chemical reactions take place, including anaerobic respiration, the production of enzymes and other proteins
1.1.2 Mitochondria
1.1.2.1 Contain the enzymes needed for aerobic respiration
1.1.3 Nucleus
1.1.3.1 Contains the DNA that carries the genetic code for making enzymes and other proteins used in all chemical reactions in the cell
1.1.4 Cell Membrane
1.1.4.1 Allows chemicals like gases and water to pass in and out freely, but prevents other chemicals from leaving or entering the cell
1.2 Plant Cells
1.2.1 Cell wall
1.2.1.1 Made of cellulose to strengthen the cell
1.2.2 Permanent Vacuole
1.2.2.1 Helps support the cell
1.2.3 Chloroplasts
1.2.3.1 Contain the green pigment, chlorophyll (which absorbs light energy), and some enzymes needed for photosynthesis
1.3 Microbial Cells
1.3.1 Bacteria
1.3.1.1 Cytoplasm
1.3.1.1.1 Where proteins, including enzymes used in aerobic and anaerobic respiration, are made.
1.3.1.2 Circular DNA
1.3.1.2.1 The DNA floats freely int the cytoplasm.
1.3.1.3 Cell Membrane
1.3.1.3.1 Allows gasses and water to enter and leave the cell freely while acting as a barrier to other larger chemicals
1.3.1.4 Cell Wall
1.3.1.4.1 Gives strength to the bacterial cell
1.3.2 Yeast cells
1.3.2.1 cell wall
1.3.2.1.1 Gives the yeast cell strength
1.3.2.2 Nucleus
1.3.2.2.1 Contains DNA that carries the genetic code for making the enzymes needed in respiration
1.3.2.3 Cytoplasm
1.3.2.3.1 Where proteins including enzymes used in anaerobic respiration are amde
1.3.2.4 Mitochondria
1.3.2.4.1 Where aerobic respiration occurs
2 Enzymes
2.1 These are proteins which speed up the rate of chemical reactions.Cells produce enzymes according to the instructions carried in genes
2.1.1 Enzymes need a specific temperature to work at their optimum. At low temperatures, small increases in temperature cause an increase in the frequency
2.1.1.1 After the optimum enzyme activity is reached, the enzymes start to get damaged, so the reaction slows
2.1.1.1.1 Eventually the enzymes structure is permanently destroyed and it stops working, the enzymes has become denatured
2.2 Lock and Key model
3 Respiration
3.1 Aerobic Respiration
3.1.1 Aerobic respiration needs oxygen and occurs in animal cells, plant cells and many microbial cells.
3.1.2 C6H12O6+6O2=6CO2+6H2O+Energy/ATP
3.2 Anaerobic Respiration
3.2.1 Anaerobic respiration occurs in conditions of very low oxygen or where no oxygen is present.
3.2.1.1 Animal
3.2.1.1.1 Glucose=Lactic Acid+Energy/ATP
3.2.2 Plant + Yeast
3.2.2.1 Glucose=Carbon Dioxide+Ethanol+Energy/ATP
4 Molecule Synthesis
4.1 Glucose, produced in photosynthesis in plants, can build up into a polymer as cellulose (for building cell walls) or as starch ( stored in roots).
4.2 Glucose nitrates can be joined to make larger molecules of amino acids. In turn, amino acids can be joined together to make proteins.
5 Photosynthesis
5.1 1). Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in green plants
5.1.1 2). Within the chlorophyll molecule, the light energy is used to rearrange the atoms of carbon.
5.1.1.1 3). oxygen is produced as a waste product.
5.2 Carbon dioxide+water+light energy/chlorophyll= glucose+ oxygen
5.2.1 6CO2+6H2O+light energy/chlorophyll=C6H12O6+6O2
5.3 Limiting Factors
5.3.1 Temperature, as it rises so does photosynthesis but at 45 degrees the enzymes denature
5.3.2 Carbon dioxide concentration; the rise in carbon dioxide makes photosynthesis rise until it get to such a concentration where it stops.
5.3.2.1 Light intensity is the same as Carbon dioxide, more is better but it reaches a point where the plant can only photosynthesis a certain amount.
6 Diffusion
6.1 Diffusion is overall movement of substances from the regions of high concentration, to regions of low concentration.
6.1.1 Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the leaf by diffusion of the gases in and out.
6.1.1.1 Substance that move in and out of cells by diffusion include oxygen, carbon dioxide and dissolved food.
7 Active Transport
7.1 Some chemicals can be moved by active transport. This is the movement of a substance against a concentration gradient, it requires respiration.
8 Osmosis
8.1 osmosis is a type of diffusion. It's the overall movement of water from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution.
8.1.1 Happens through a Partially permeable membrane.

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