Chapter 6: Cultural Theory and Material Culture


Mind Map on Chapter 6: Cultural Theory and Material Culture, created by Corina Lerma on 09/06/2016.
Corina Lerma
Mind Map by Corina Lerma, updated more than 1 year ago
Corina Lerma
Created by Corina Lerma almost 8 years ago

Resource summary

Chapter 6: Cultural Theory and Material Culture
  1. Anthropology
    1. study of man (human beings)
      1. "scientific study of the physical, social, and cultural development of man" (101).
        1. Cultural (or social) Anthropology
          1. analysis of social life and the relationship between culture and personality
            1. "cultural turn"
              1. "not as much a set of a process, a set of practices" (102).
                1. Meaning
                  1. "It is by our use of things, and what we say, think and feel about them-how we represent them-that we them a meaning" (102).
              2. Linguistic Anthropology
                1. focuses upon language
            2. Archeology
              1. studies the past, very distant past, by using very ancient artifacts and other materials
              2. Clotaire Ropaille
                1. "culture can be thought of as a series of codes that we learn while we grow up and that shape our behavior in many different areas" (103).
                  1. "imprints"
                    1. combination of experiences and accompanying emotions
                      1. imprint and its code are like a lock and its combination= reference system
                        1. Cheese Example
                          1. French
                            1. cheese is alive and is stored in cloche which has holes for air
                            2. Americans
                              1. cheese is dead and is stored in plastic bags in a refrigerator
                        2. "every artifact reflects certain national, cultural, or subcultural attitudes and values that have been imprinted on young children" (104).
                    2. Mary Douglas
                      1. grid-group theory
                        1. "objects and services that we buy and possess are culturally defined and best understood as being tied to our lifestyles" (105).
                          1. hostile lifestyles
                            1. elitist
                              1. individualist
                                1. egalitarian
                                  1. fatalist
                                  2. Aaron Wildavsky
                                    1. "political cultures"
                                    2. individuals in all societies have to decide who they are and what they should do
                                  3. Culture
                                    1. "result of myriads of individual choices, not primarily between commodities but between kinds of relationships" (108).
                                      1. Artefacts
                                        1. selected to demonstrate the choice
                                          1. "a struggle to demonstrate not what one is but what one is not" (108).
                                            1. "expression of our cultural alignments" (109).
                                              1. Songs
                                                1. Elitists: "God Save the Queen"
                                                  1. Individualists: "I Did It My Way"
                                                    1. Egalitarians: "We Are the World"
                                                      1. Fatalists: "Que Sera, Sera"
                                            2. Mark Gottdiener
                                              1. Analysis of mass culture involves three-way relationship
                                                1. 1) cultural objects are produced by the industrial process
                                                  1. 2) set of institutions that produce and distribute such objects on a relatively large scale
                                                    1. 3) a collectivity(ies) or social groups of those who use such objects in contexts that can include use within a creator connotatively polysemic setting
                                          2. Myths
                                            1. sacred narratives that shape cultural values and behavior
                                              1. Raphael Patai
                                                1. "traditional religious charter...explaining sociocultural situations and natural phenomena, taking form of stories, believed to be true, about divine beings and heroes" (110).
                                                  1. "narrative theories"
                                                    1. "Not only do myths pervade our media and popular culture, of particular interest...but they are found in advertisements for products" (111).
                                                  2. Mircea Eliade
                                                    1. "a primordial event that took place at the beginning of time" (112).
                                                      1. myths help shape culture, unrecognized myths that inform many of our behaviors and that are behind many of the things we purchase (112).
                                                2. "myth model"
                                                  1. shapes our behavior
                                                    1. we can find myths in psychoanalytic theory
                                                      1. Myth
                                                        1. Prometheus, who brings fire to mankind
                                                        2. Psychoanalytic Theory
                                                          1. Pyromaniacs
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