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Ionic and Covalent Bonding Unit 1

Resource summary

1 What is a chemical bond?
1.1 This is a force that holds atoms together
1.2 Involves outershell electrons
2 Ionic Bonding
2.1 Strong net electrostatic forces of attraction
2.1.1 Holds oppositely charged ions together
2.2 Giant ionic lattice
2.2.1 Maximises attractive force between oppositely charged ions
2.2.2 Minimises repulsion between similarly charged ions
2.2.3 Forces of lattice are exerted equally in all directions Holds ions tightly
2.2.4 Form ionic crystals
2.2.5 Types of lattice structure Use of electron density maps Evidence for existence of ions X-rays passed through ionic crystal Diffracted by electrons Shows arrangement of ions Cubic structure Body-centred Face-centred Coordination number No of anions surrounding a single cation in a stable crystal structure
2.3 Occurs between metal and non-metals
2.4 Dot and cross diagrams used to show electron transfer
2.5 Ionic radius
2.5.1 Radius of an ion in an orbital
2.5.2 Increases in size down group Greater no. of electrons
2.5.3 Across a period Anions larger Extra layer of electrons No. protons increases Electrons held more tightly Ionic radius falls
2.5.4 Isoelectronic ions Falls across series Cations smaller Remaining electrons more strongly attracted to positive nucleus Anions larger Additional negative charge : electrons bound less tightly
2.6 Physical Properties Evidence for ions
2.6.1 High melting & boiling temperatures
2.6.2 Quite hard
2.6.3 Brittle Differ from metals No sea of electrons Force put ions in one layer near ions in other layer Resulting repulsive force would force 2 layers apart Substance shatters
2.6.4 Conduct electricity when molten or aqueous solution Lattice attraction of ions is overcome Ions become mobile
2.6.5 Electroysis Positive species Attracted to cathode Negative species Attracted to anode
3 Covalent Bonding
4 Octet Rule
4.1 Elements tend to react to form an outershell of 8 electrons
5 Isoelectronic
5.1 Same electron configuration
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