Changing Political Environment

Holly Bamford
Mind Map by , created about 3 years ago

Slightly messy mind map on the changing political environment, Britain 1918-1979

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Holly Bamford
Created by Holly Bamford about 3 years ago
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Changing Political Environment
1 Political Parties in the 1910s
1.1 Labour
1.1.1 Working class
1.1.2 Higher tax
1.1.3 Welfare state
1.1.4 more extreme left-wing
1.2 Liberals
1.2.1 Upper middle class
1.2.2 Moderate
1.2.3 Centre
1.3 Conservatives
1.3.1 Upper class
1.3.2 Low tax
1.3.3 more extreme right wing
1.3.4 Policies Favoured the Wealthy
2 WW1 and it's effect on politics
2.1 £3.2 million in debt
2.2 Disruption to trade
2.3 The USA had become more powerful
2.3.1 Reserves of British currency
2.4 Representation of the People Act 1918
3 The decline of the liberal party
3.1 Knighthood Scandle
3.1.1 Gave criminals access to House of Lords
3.2 Unpopular policies
3.2.1 War with Turkey
3.2.2 Irish War of Independence
3.2.3 Peoples Budget
3.3 Popularity of Labour and Conservatives
3.3.1 Parilment Act
3.3.1.1 Commons had more power over Lords
3.4 Split in the Liberal party
3.5 Expansion of the Franchise
3.5.1 More people could vote
3.5.1.1 Policies had to change
3.5.1.2 Voters may change allegences
3.5.1.3 Labour appealed to the working class
3.5.1.3.1 'Party of the people'
4 Conservatives and Labour in the 1920s
4.1 Bonar Law replaces Lloyd George as prime minister
4.1.1 Resigns and is replaced by Stanley Baldwin
4.1.1.1 Baldwin calls a general election
4.1.1.1.1 Vote of No Confidence from labour and liberals
4.1.1.1.1.1 Becomes first Labour government
4.2 Labour became the party of the people
5 First Labour governemnent
5.1 Ramsay MacDonald
5.2 Limited power
5.3 Housing Act
5.4 Expands National Insurance Act
5.5 Resigns after a failed vote of no confidence
5.6 Minority
6 Conservative Dominance 1924-29
6.1 1924 General election
6.1.1 Conservative-47.2%
6.1.2 Labour-33%
6.1.3 Liberals-17.6%
6.1.4 Right wing press encouraged the idea that Labour was linked to Facism and communism
6.1.4.1 Baldwin tries to discourage framing Labour
6.2 Trade Union Bill
6.2.1 Tried to prevent Labour from recieving political levy from trade unions
6.2.2 Baldwin was against but party pressure
7 The National Government
7.1 1931-1940
7.1.1 Economic crisis
7.1.1.1 Low interest rates
7.1.1.2 Tariffs
7.1.1.3 Spending cuts
7.1.1.4 Growth in extremism
7.1.1.4.1 Due to government failure
7.1.1.5 Removal from gold standard
7.1.2 Rearmament
7.1.2.1 Started to rearm for 1934
7.1.2.1.1 Threat form Germany
7.1.2.1.2 Split Labour
7.1.2.1.2.1 Collective security
7.1.2.1.2.2 War likely
7.1.3 World Disarmament conference
7.1.3.1 Collective security
7.1.3.2 Hitler broke ToV
7.1.3.3 Failed
7.2 Baldwin
7.2.1 Pledged New Houses and Jobs
7.2.2 Dived Party on rearmament
7.2.2.1 popular with public
7.3 Chamberlin
7.3.1 break down in international order
7.3.1.1 European dictators
7.3.2 Increase in anti-war movements
7.3.3 Economic recovery
7.3.3.1 Fall in unemployment
7.3.3.2 Stable prices
8 Consensus politics after 1945
8.1 Main policies
8.1.1 Full Employment
8.1.1.1 Not realistic
8.1.1.2 Unnecessary jobs
8.1.1.3 Inflation rose
8.1.1.4 Everyone earning
8.1.1.5 More money to invest back into the economy
8.1.2 Mixed Economy
8.1.2.1 Government can create Jobs
8.1.2.2 No competition between trades
8.1.3 Government and Trade Unions controlled Wages
8.1.3.1 No minimum wage
8.1.3.2 Paid for skill
8.1.4 Welfare State and NHS
8.1.4.1 Healthy workforce
8.1.4.2 Improved quality of life
8.1.4.3 Cost kept rising
8.2 Churchill lost the 1945 election
8.2.1 Public saw his policies as old fashioned
8.2.2 Unable to support war veterans
9 The Labour Government 1945-51
9.1 Main Reforms
9.1.1 Established NHS
9.1.2 NI Act
9.1.3 Education Act 1944
9.1.4 Housing Act 1949
9.2 Declining Vote
9.2.1 Redistribution of Seats Act
9.2.1.1 Loss of safe consituentcy borders
9.2.2 Rationing
9.2.2.1 Loss of freedom
9.2.2.2 Restrictions during peacetime
9.2.3 Austerity
9.2.3.1 unable to revive economy
9.2.4 Tax Increase
9.2.4.1 45% tax in 1949
9.2.4.2 90% tax for higher earners
9.2.4.3 Not able to spend money
9.2.5 The Korean War
9.2.5.1 Increase in military expenditure
9.2.5.2 Extra charges for NHS
9.2.6 First Past the Post
9.2.6.1 % not represented by seats
9.2.7 Loss of key personnel
9.2.7.1 More difficult to govern
10 The Conservative Government 1951-64
10.1 Churchill's Government 1951-55
10.1.1 Butskellism
10.1.1.1 Economic and welfare policies
10.1.1.1.1 Post-war consensus
10.1.2 End of Rationing and wartime restrictions
10.2 Eden's government 1955-57
10.2.1 Suez Crisis
10.2.1.1 Showed control that America had over Britain
10.2.1.2 Reduction in British World power
10.3 MacMillian's Government 1957-63
10.3.1 Economic worries
10.3.1.1 Rising inflation
10.3.1.2 Spending cuts and tax rises
10.3.2 Resignation of Key Personell
10.3.2.1 Falling popularity
10.3.3 Spy Scandles
10.3.3.1 Vasal
10.3.3.2 Philby
10.3.3.3 Profumo
11 Industrial relations
11.1 1919-20
11.1.1 Brief post-war boom
11.1.1.1 led to increased labour disputes
11.1.2 32 million working days lost to strikes
11.1.3 Heavy industry was not improving
11.1.4 40 hrs week
11.2 1921-39
11.2.1 Miners wages cut
11.2.2 Impact of gold standard
11.2.3 General strike
11.2.4 Reduced union activity
11.2.5 Regional diferences
11.3 WWII
11.3.1 Full employment due to war economy
11.3.2 Increase in gender equaltiy
11.3.3 Working opportunities improves
11.3.4 Essential Work order 1941
11.3.5 Bevin Boys
11.4 Full employment in the 60s and 70s
11.4.1 Factory Work
11.4.1.1 Mass Production
11.4.1.2 Increased pay
11.4.1.2.1 Due to competition
11.4.1.3 Consumer prices fell
11.4.2 Consensus policies
11.4.3 Employers needed to keep workers
11.4.4 Greater variation in jobs
11.5 Growth of unemployment in the 1970s
11.5.1 Industrial problems grew
11.5.2 Jobs became less secure
11.5.3 Decline in heavy industry
11.5.3.1 regional differences in unemployment
11.5.4 Break down of consesnus
11.5.4.1 Labour-full employment not realistic
11.5.4.1.1 Market forces should control employment
11.6 Heath and Scargill
11.6.1 London Docks 1972
11.6.1.1 Arrest of shop stewards
11.6.1.2 National Dock strike threatened
11.6.1.3 government unable to enforce its policy
11.6.2 Pay increase ran ahead of inflation

Annotations:

  •    Pay increases ran ahead of inflation, which fuelled more inflation. The miners had accepted moderate pay in return for job security, but were increasingly influenced by extreme leaders. The coal board offered an 8% rise for 1972, but this was rejected by the union and a national strike began in January. Scargill was the main user of flying pickets.   
11.6.2.1 Fueled more inflation
11.6.3 Scargill used flying pickets
11.6.4 Salty coke depot
11.6.4.1 Closed under strike by Scargill
11.6.5 Heath's response

Annotations:

  •    Heath introduced a three stage prices and income policy. The first stage was a 6 month pay freeze. This policy was popular with the less well off with flat rate increases. But this did not save the government from union denunciation. During the three day week earnings increased but productivity did not. This showed that inflation had risen and many jobs had been made, when they were not needed. The adopted income policy was dropped in 1970 (u-turn)   
11.6.5.1 6 month pay freeze
11.6.5.2 3 day week

Annotations:

  • During the three day week earnings increased but productivity did not. This showed that inflation had risen and many jobs had been made, when they were not needed.
11.6.5.2.1 Production output only decreased by 3%
11.6.5.2.1.1 Meant there were needless jobs
11.6.5.3 U-turn
12 General election 1929
12.1 2nd Labour minority government
12.1.1 Positives
12.1.1.1 Housing Act
12.1.1.1.1 Slums replaced with modern housing
12.1.1.2 Coal Mines Act
12.1.1.2.1 Better pay for miners
12.1.1.2.2 Guaranteed coal prices
12.1.1.3 Agricultural Marketing Act
12.1.1.3.1 Board established to fix prices of produce
12.1.1.4 Amended Unemployment Insurance Act
12.1.1.4.1 More people could claim
12.1.2 Negatives
12.1.2.1 Dependent on Liberals
12.1.2.2 Had to make cuts
12.1.2.3 Split in Labour Party
12.1.2.3.1 Formation of National Government
12.2 Labour wins more seats but less votes

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