# METHODS ANDTECHNIQUES NO.1

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### Description

Unit 1: Research Methods Chapter: Methods and Techniques Part 1

## Resource summary

METHODS ANDTECHNIQUES NO.1
1 LABORATORY EXPERIMENT
1.1 Run in Controlled conditions= controlled variables. Uses a Standardised Procedure.
1.2 REPEATED MEASURES: Each participant takes part in both conditions of the experiment.
1.2.1 AO2: No need to control individual differences, leads to not so many participants which means faster and cheaper. However, 'Order Effects' is a weakness (possible confounding variables), solution is to counterbalance (e.g. 'ABBA')
1.3 INDEPENDENT GROUPS: Two independent groups of participants.
1.3.1 AO2: Eliminates order effects but individual differences are a potential confounding variable, solution use large groups.
1.4 MATCHED PAIRS: Like Independent Groups plus carefully matched members i.e one group has a footballer, the other has one too.
1.4.1 AO2: Control for individual differences and no order effects but matching is difficult.
2 OTHER EXPERIMENTS
2.1 QUASI: Does not allow random allocation of participants to either experimental condition. Independent variable is beyond control.
2.2 FIELD: Variables are manipulated in a natural environment.
2.2.1 AO2: High ecological validity and demand characteristics are low but time consuming, expensive and lack of control of extraneous variables.
2.3 NATURAL: A natural occurring independent variable is utilised.
2.3.1 AO2: High ecological validity, 'real-life' problems can be investigated and few/no demand characteristics but no control, can conclude one thing caused another, confounding variables are high and impossible to replicate.
3 OBSERVATIONAL METHODS
3.1 AWARENESS OF THE OBSERVER: Behaviour will not be natural if the participant is aware of the observer.
3.1.1 AO2: Ethical issues, can't observe or film with consent. Partial solution is to observe in places people naturaly expect to be observed.
3.2 BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES: What is being recorded has to be decided upon. These categories appear on observational checklists.
3.3 BIAS: Researcher must remain objective or results will be biased.
3.3.1 AO2: Multiple observers/raters and comparing results for inter-rater reliability can overcome bias.
3.4 SAMPLING OF OBSERVATIONS: Recording behaviours for short time intervals is TIME SAMPLING and when all occurences of the behaviour are recorded it is EVENT SAMPLING.
3.4.1 AO2: Advantages include natural behaviours observed, allows hard to examine/otherwise impossible behaviours to be investigated and few demand characteristics but chance of bias, confounding variables interfere and small groups are usually observed which makes results hard to generalise.
3.5 CONTENT ANALYSIS: Analysis of text or other media like film or can be a conversation. Issues of reliability, behavioural categories and checklists for recording apply here.
4 GOOD LAB EXPERIEMENT
4.1 Findings are GENERALISABLE as they refer to people outside of the sample, it is REPLICABLE, RELIABLE and VALID.
4.1.1 AO2: Advantages include, the controlled setting allows that the independent variable caused a change in the dependent variable, they can be repeated and variables are easier to control. However, the more you control, the less natural it is, it can be impossible to use a lab experiment and confidence in results may be reduced by demand characteristics and experimenter effects.

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