1.1 Run in Controlled conditions= controlled variables. Uses a
1.2 REPEATED MEASURES: Each
participant takes part in both
conditions of the experiment.
1.2.1 AO2: No need to control individual
differences, leads to not so many
participants which means faster and
cheaper. However, 'Order Effects' is a
weakness (possible confounding
variables), solution is to counterbalance
1.3 INDEPENDENT GROUPS:
1.3.1 AO2: Eliminates order effects but
individual differences are a
potential confounding variable,
solution use large groups.
1.4 MATCHED PAIRS: Like
Independent Groups plus
carefully matched members i.e
one group has a footballer, the
other has one too.
1.4.1 AO2: Control for individual
differences and no order effects
but matching is difficult.
2 OTHER EXPERIMENTS
2.1 QUASI: Does not allow random
allocation of participants to either
Independent variable is beyond
2.2 FIELD: Variables are manipulated in
a natural environment.
2.2.1 AO2: High ecological validity and demand characteristics are
low but time consuming, expensive and lack of control of
2.3 NATURAL: A natural occurring
independent variable is
2.3.1 AO2: High ecological validity, 'real-life'
problems can be investigated and
few/no demand characteristics but no
control, can conclude one thing caused
another, confounding variables are high
and impossible to replicate.
3 OBSERVATIONAL METHODS
3.1 AWARENESS OF THE OBSERVER: Behaviour
will not be natural if the participant is
aware of the observer.
3.1.1 AO2: Ethical issues,
can't observe or film
with consent. Partial
solution is to observe
in places people
naturaly expect to be
3.2 BEHAVIOURAL CATEGORIES: What is being recorded
has to be decided upon. These categories appear
on observational checklists.
3.3 BIAS: Researcher must remain objective or
results will be biased.
3.3.1 AO2: Multiple observers/raters and
comparing results for inter-rater reliability
can overcome bias.
3.4 SAMPLING OF
Recording behaviours for
short time intervals is
TIME SAMPLING and
when all occurences of
the behaviour are
recorded it is EVENT
3.4.1 AO2: Advantages include natural behaviours
observed, allows hard to examine/otherwise
impossible behaviours to be investigated and few
demand characteristics but chance of bias,
confounding variables interfere and small groups are
usually observed which makes results hard to
3.5 CONTENT ANALYSIS: Analysis of text or
other media like film or can be a
conversation. Issues of reliability,
behavioural categories and checklists
for recording apply here.
4 GOOD LAB EXPERIEMENT
4.1 Findings are
GENERALISABLE as they
refer to people outside of
the sample, it is
4.1.1 AO2: Advantages include, the controlled setting allows
that the independent variable caused a change in the
dependent variable, they can be repeated and variables
are easier to control. However, the more you control, the
less natural it is, it can be impossible to use a lab
experiment and confidence in results may be reduced by
demand characteristics and experimenter effects.