PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

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pinkizzy
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Unit 1: Research Methods Chapter: Psychological Research
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PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
1 HYPOTHESIS
1.1 DIRECTIONAL: A specific direction is predcited e.g. 'eating potatoes makes people sleep more.'
1.2 NON-DIRECTIONAL: No specific direction is predicted e.g. 'Eating potatoes changes the amount people sleep.'
2 VARIABLES
2.1 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: This is what the resercher changes during the experiment.
2.1.1 DEPENDENT VARIABLES: This is what the researcher measure, what they write down or record.
2.2 EXTRANEOUS AND CONFOUNDING VARIABLES: Anything other that the independent variable that can and may influence the dependent variable is an extraneous variable. Extraneous variable becomes a Confounding variable when the dependent variable is influenced.
3 SAMPLING
3.1 RANDOM: Everyone has an equal chance to be pick- 'Names from a hat'.
3.1.1 AO2: Could get bias from chance and relies on participants being avaliable.
3.2 OPPORTUNITY: Ask anyone you can find to participate.
3.2.1 AO2: Not representative of population and can be unconsciously bias.
3.3 VOLUNTEER: Advertise for people to help you.
3.3.1 AO2: May get bias from 'interested' people or from where you advertise.
4 PILOT STUDY
4.1 Small-scale version of the investigation. Reveals issues of reliability, validity and variables.
5 ETHICAL ISSUES
5.1 Informed consent, Deception, Debriefing, Right to Withdraw, Confidentiality and Protection.
6 OTHER
6.1 DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS: Features of the research may cause participants to change behaviour. Can be reduced by 'Single-Blind' procedure.
6.2 INVESTIGATOR EFFECTS: The age, gender, ethnicity or behaviour of researcher may influence participant. Can be reduced by 'Double-Blind' procedure.
6.3 RELIABILITY: Refers to the consistency of the research. Can the research be replicated?
6.4 VALIDITY: Does the test do what it claims to? If yes, we say it is valid.
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