Language and power

tom4413
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Mind Map on Language and power, created by tom4413 on 05/01/2013.

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tom4413
Created by tom4413 over 6 years ago
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Language and power
1 Language of power found in different contexts
1.1 Political language
1.1.1 To persuade
1.1.1.1 Repetition
1.1.1.2 Three part lists
1.1.1.3 First person plural pronouns
1.1.1.4 Figurative language
1.1.1.5 Rhetorical questions
1.1.1.6 Hyperboles
1.2 Legal language
1.2.1 Has own jargon
1.2.2 Syntax complex with many subordinate clauses
1.2.3 Repetitive
1.2.4 Knowledge of this language gives specialists a distinct advantage, and so power
1.3 Education
1.3.1 Teachers use imperatives, students don't and use indirect questions
1.3.2 Imbalance in address terms to show teacher has authority
1.4 Business
1.4.1 Employers speak directly to employees, who use more politeness strategies
1.4.2 Hierarchical structure shown in titles
2 Address terms
2.1 Politics
2.1.1 Honourable member
2.2 Law
2.2.1 Your Honour
2.2.2 Ladies and gentlemen of the jury
2.3 Education
2.3.1 Sir, Miss, Dr, Mr Smith
2.4 Business
2.4.1 Madam chair, sir, madam
3 Exerting power in conversation
3.1 Initiating conversation
3.2 Holding the floor
3.3 Imperative sentences
3.4 Interrupting
3.5 Unresponsiveness
3.6 Questioning
3.7 Topic changing
4 Context of a conversation and power
4.1 Relationship between speakers
4.2 In certain contexts, dominant features can actually be supportive
4.3 Asking questions can instead of wanting to control conversation, can be to hand over the floor to someone else
5 Power shows in different ways
5.1 Non-verbal communication
5.1.1 Posture
5.1.2 Positioning
5.1.3 Gestures
5.1.4 Eye contact
5.2 Non-verbal aspects of speech
5.2.1 Pitch
5.2.2 Intonation
5.2.3 Volume
5.2.4 Pace
5.2.5 Stress
5.3 Standard English and RP
5.3.1 Receive most prestige
5.3.2 Associated with professional jobs and good education
5.3.3 More authority and status
6 Jargon
6.1 Jargon alternatives
6.1.1 Plain English campaign 1999
6.1.2 Crystal Mark
6.2 Understanding jargon sense of inclusion
6.3 Non-specialists intimidated and excluded from the high status group
7 Political correctness
7.1 Language adapted to minimise social inequality
8 Media
8.1 Bias
8.2 Prejudice
8.3 Stereotypes
8.4 Sensationalising
9 Adverts
9.1 Selling
9.2 Form
9.3 Target audience
9.4 Hook
9.5 Puns and well known collocations
9.6 Intertextuality
10 Newspapers
10.1 Tabloid
10.1.1 The Sun
10.1.2 News of the World
10.2 Broadsheet
10.2.1 The Guardian
10.2.2 The Daily Telegraph

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