Kennedy 1961 - 1963

jacksearle
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Levels Cold War (Individuals) Mind Map on Kennedy 1961 - 1963, created by jacksearle on 03/21/2014.

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jacksearle
Created by jacksearle over 5 years ago
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Kennedy 1961 - 1963
1 Vienna Summit June 1961
1.1 Marked a new stage in superpower relations
1.1.1 Kennedy newly elected president, Khrushchev wanted to capitalise on Kennedy's in experience and his recent humiliation over the Bay of Pigs
1.2 Khrushchev adopted an aggressive stance, demands:
1.2.1 The Soviet Union would continue to support 'wars of national liberation' because of the dominance of colonial and capitalist powers
1.2.2 The West should recognise the sovereign status of East Germany
1.2.3 The Berlin question should be settled on Soviet terms within 6 months
1.3 Only constructive result of the summit was agreement to ensure a neutral and independent Laos
1.3.1 Kennedy was shaken by Khrushchev but didn't back down
1.3.1.1 Ultimately, Khrushchev misjudged Kennedy as weak - a mistake that would be revealed clearly during the Cuban Missile Crisis
2 Berlin
2.1 3rd Berlin Crisis, Berlin Wall, August 1961
2.1.1 Kennedy rejected Khrushchev demand at Vienna that the US should withdraw from Berlin by the end of that year - stating that Berlin was central to US security interests
2.1.1.1 25 July 1961, Kennedy publicly pledged US would not be driven out of Berlin and announced increases in armed forces
2.1.1.1.1 Khrushchev didn't want war over Berlin but couldn't allow exodus of East Germans to continue
2.1.1.1.1.1 August 61, Khrushchev built Berlin Wall - prevent free movement between East and West
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 In response, Kennedy considered a limited nuclear strike against USSR, but dropped this when it became clear there was no threat to West Berlin
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Khrushchev's actions stemmed the flow of Germans moving to the West and the US accepted the division of Berlin
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Berlin Wall became enduring image of the Cold War
2.2 4th Berlin Crisis October 1961
2.2.1 After Berlin Wall crisis, Kennedy sent General Clay to Berlin as his rep
2.2.1.1 October 1961, US diplomat could not enter East Berlin as he refused to show his passport
2.2.1.1.1 This breached an agreement allowing free travel without passports for Western and Soviet personnel
2.2.1.1.1.1 Clay responded by providing US military patrol to escort the diplomat into East Berlin
2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Armed US soldiers accompanied US citizens
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 US tanks were stationed at Checkpoint Charlie, the chief crossing point between East and West Berlin
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 27 October, 33 Soviet tanks enter East Berlin, 23 placed at Brandenburg gate, 10 placed at Checkpoint Charlie facing US tanks
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Tense stand off ensured that US garrison in Berlin, Nato and Strategic Air Command were put on alert
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Khrushchev authorised Soviet commander to return fire if attacked
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Kennedy contacted Khrushchev directly and proposed joint staged removal of forces
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 This solution broke the deadlock - after 16 hours of nose to nose, tanks on both sides withdrew
3 Flexible response and counterforce
3.1 Kennedy and defense secretary McNamara rejected massive retaliation as being too rigid
3.1.1 they favoured a 'flexible response' strategy, that considered the possibility of a limited nuclear war
3.1.1.1 As part of this, McNamara developed a 'second strike' capability, based on bombers, ICBMs and submarines, so the USA could strike back at Russia after suffering nuclear attack
3.1.1.1.1 1962, he also introduced the counterforce strategy - to make the USSR's military bases - not the cities - the targets of any future US nuclear attack
3.1.1.1.1.1 USSR did not endorse flexible tactics, they focused on all-out nuclear attack
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Flexible response was expensive and raised basic questions about how nuclear war could be 'limited' or 'managed'
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 A further difficulty with it was the USA's inability to target Soviet nuclear sites accurately
4 Bay Of Pigs 1961
4.1 1961 - Kennedy authorised CIA-backed invasion of Cuba
4.1.1 Aim - to spark popular revolt on the island to overthrow Castro
4.1.1.1 1400 lightly armed anti-Castro Cuban exiles landed on the Bay of Pigs but were quickly overwhelmed by the Cuban army and air force
4.1.1.1.1 Failed assault was a deep humiliation for Kennedy, who couldn't hide the USA's involvement
4.1.1.1.1.1 Castro reacted by entering into a defensive agreement with the USSR - brought Soviet weapons and military advisers to Cuba
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Khrushchev supplied the island with MiG jets and surface-to-air missiles (SAMs)
5 Operation Mongoose 1962
5.1 6 months after Bay of Pigs - the CIA with Kennedy's full support - launched Operation Mongoose
5.1.1 A secret programmed designed to destabilise the Cuban regime and remove Castro
5.1.1.1 Between January and July 1962 - 60000 acts of sabotage were performed - ranging from murder to arson
5.1.1.1.1 USA also held large scale military exercise in the Caribbean to increase the pressure on Cuba and demonstrate the USAs might
5.1.1.1.1.1 Both Castro and USSR expected US to invade
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 One of key reasons behind Khrushchev placing the arms in Cuba that led to the Cuban Missile Crisis
6 Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis for Kennedy
6.1 Gave him a much-needed foreign policy success which strengthened his presidency- To avoid humiliating the Soviets, he sensibly ordered 'no boasting, no gloating, not even a claim of victory'
6.2 He could claim to have removed the Soviet nuclear threat from the USA's backyard and to have prevented a superpower nuclear exchange
6.3 10 days after the crisis, Kennedy reaped the domestic political rewards at the US congressional elections - when the Democrats won their biggest majority in the senate for 20 years
6.4 Nevertheless, he still had pledged to not attempt to remove Castro and so had effectively accepted that the island would stay under comm control for the forseeable future
6.5 Had secretly agreed with Soviets to remove US missiles in Turkey. This decision was made without the knowledge of the Turkish govt, and was not revealed to the public until 1968
7 Events of 1963 - Post CMC
7.1 The hot-line agreement June 1963
7.1.1 CMC had shown the necessity for rapid communication between the superpowers
7.1.1.1 As a result - the hotline was set up between the Whitehouse and the Kremlin so that the US and Soviet leaders could contact eachother immediately in crisis
7.1.1.1.1 Aim - to ensure that any superpower misjudgements could be resolved before serious crisis developed
7.1.1.1.1.1 Nixon and Brezhnev used it once in 1971 during India-Pakistan war
7.2 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - August 1963
7.2.1 By October 1958 - both superpowers - aware of the positive publicity value - began a voluntary suspension on nuclear tests, which lasted for 3 years
7.2.1.1 During this period, a more formal agreement could not be reached as the USSR rejected US demands for rigorous on site inspections of underground nuclear tests
7.2.1.1.1 August 1961 - USSR resume atmospheric tests and USA follow suit with new round of underground and atmospheric tests
7.2.1.1.1.1 Sobering impact of CMC led to the superpowers and Britain signing the Nuclear Test Ban treaty 1963
7.2.1.1.1.1.1 Banned them from conducting nuclear tests in the atmosphere, under water or in space. Underground was still permitted as long as it only impacted the country who carried it out

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