Matter

alya ghubash
Mind Map by alya ghubash, updated more than 1 year ago
alya ghubash
Created by alya ghubash over 3 years ago
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Describes how matter could be classified
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Matter
1 how is matter classified?
1.1 structure
1.1.1 element
1.1.1.1 ions
1.1.1.1.1 electrically charged particles
1.1.2 compound
1.1.2.1 2 or more atoms of ions bonded together
1.1.2.1.1 molecules
1.1.2.1.1.1 2 or more elements joined chemically
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds
1.1.2.1.1.2 Water
1.1.2.1.2 contain at least 2 different elements
1.2 states
1.2.1 solid
1.2.1.1 vibrate in its place
1.2.2 liquid
1.2.2.1 molecules are farther apart
1.2.3 gas
1.2.3.1 molecules slide and move rapidly
1.2.4 how is heat transferred
1.2.4.1 Endothermic: Heat is released(expand)
1.2.4.1.1
1.2.4.2 Exothermic: Heat is absorbed(contracted)
1.2.4.2.1 Reactions
1.2.4.2.1.1 Reactants
1.2.4.2.1.1.1 Products->
1.2.4.2.1.2 Catalysts: Speeds up reactions
1.2.4.2.1.2.1 Enzymes: Living organizms
1.2.4.2.1.3 Initial energy: Amount of energy exerted on an object to start a reaction
1.2.4.2.1.3.1 The ability to do work
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1 Energy
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1 Types of Energy
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1 Quality
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 HIgh
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Can be used to perform useful work
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Electricity
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.2 Low
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1 Can't be used to perform useful work
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Heat in the ocean
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.2 Motion
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.2.1 Kinetic: Moving
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.2.2 Potential: Energy due to relative position
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.3 Forms of energy
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.3.1 Electricity
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.3.2 Light
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.3.3 Chemical
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.1.3.4 Heat
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.2 Energy can't be created nor destroyed
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.2.1 When converting energy into other forms, energy is lost
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1 This is called Entropy
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1 A type of energy which is usually lost is
1.2.4.2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1
1.3 How it can be separated
1.3.1 can be separated by physical; process
1.3.1.1 no
1.3.1.1.1 Single pure substance
1.3.1.1.1.1 can be separated by a chemical process
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 No
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Element
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Oxygen
1.3.1.1.1.1.2 Yes
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1 compound
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Acid or Base
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Acid
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Releases hydrogen ions in a solution
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Attracts hydroxide ion
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 1-6.99 pH
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.3 Turns litmus paper to red , either blue or red litmus paper
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.4 Eg: Gastric acid , Lemon Juice
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.2 Base
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.2.1 Releases hydroxide ions in the solution
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.2.1.1 Attracts hydrogen ion
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.2.2 7.01-14pH
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.2.3 Turns litmus paper to blue , either blue or red litmus paper
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.2.4 Eg: Bleach ,Milk
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3 Tools to indicate substances
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3.1 Qualitative
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3.1.1 Universal Indicator(Chemical indicator)
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3.1.2 Litmus paper
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3.1.2.1 Blue
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3.1.2.2 Red
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3.2 Quantitative
1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.3.2.1 pH scale
1.3.1.2 mixture of substances
1.3.1.2.1 Air
2 Biological (Organic)
3 Non-biological (Inorganic)
4 Scientific Methods
4.1 A way of gaining information about the world by forming possible solutions to questions
4.1.1 If the conditions exist- the results will happen
4.1.2 Repeated events probably have the same causes
4.1.3 Fundamental rules of nature are universal
4.2 How to construct
4.2.1 1) observation using the five senses
4.2.1.1 2) Ask questions
4.2.1.1.1 3) Constructing a hypothesis and test it
4.2.1.1.1.1 A good hypothesis should be
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 logical
4.2.1.1.1.1.2 few assumptions
4.2.1.1.1.1.3 account for all relevant information currently available
4.2.1.1.1.1.4 allow prediction
4.2.1.1.1.2 4) If it's proven not true then it's rejected.
4.3 Reproductibility
4.3.1 Must be repeated by independent investigators to ensure a lack of bias
4.3.2 Communication is vital
4.3.2.1 Provides assurance
4.3.2.1.1 So it could be published in journals , articles , and books.
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