alya ghubash
Mind Map by alya ghubash, updated more than 1 year ago
alya ghubash
Created by alya ghubash over 3 years ago


Describes how matter could be classified

Resource summary

1 how is matter classified?
1.1 structure
1.1.1 element ions electrically charged particles
1.1.2 compound 2 or more atoms of ions bonded together molecules 2 or more elements joined chemically All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds Water contain at least 2 different elements
1.2 states
1.2.1 solid vibrate in its place
1.2.2 liquid molecules are farther apart
1.2.3 gas molecules slide and move rapidly
1.2.4 how is heat transferred Endothermic: Heat is released(expand) Exothermic: Heat is absorbed(contracted) Reactions Reactants Products-> Catalysts: Speeds up reactions Enzymes: Living organizms Initial energy: Amount of energy exerted on an object to start a reaction The ability to do work Energy Types of Energy Quality HIgh Can be used to perform useful work Electricity Low Can't be used to perform useful work Heat in the ocean Motion Kinetic: Moving Potential: Energy due to relative position Forms of energy Electricity Light Chemical Heat Energy can't be created nor destroyed When converting energy into other forms, energy is lost This is called Entropy A type of energy which is usually lost is
1.3 How it can be separated
1.3.1 can be separated by physical; process no Single pure substance can be separated by a chemical process No Element Oxygen Yes compound Acid or Base Acid Releases hydrogen ions in a solution Attracts hydroxide ion 1-6.99 pH Turns litmus paper to red , either blue or red litmus paper Eg: Gastric acid , Lemon Juice Base Releases hydroxide ions in the solution Attracts hydrogen ion 7.01-14pH Turns litmus paper to blue , either blue or red litmus paper Eg: Bleach ,Milk Tools to indicate substances Qualitative Universal Indicator(Chemical indicator) Litmus paper Blue Red Quantitative pH scale mixture of substances Air
2 Biological (Organic)
3 Non-biological (Inorganic)
4 Scientific Methods
4.1 A way of gaining information about the world by forming possible solutions to questions
4.1.1 If the conditions exist- the results will happen
4.1.2 Repeated events probably have the same causes
4.1.3 Fundamental rules of nature are universal
4.2 How to construct
4.2.1 1) observation using the five senses 2) Ask questions 3) Constructing a hypothesis and test it A good hypothesis should be logical few assumptions account for all relevant information currently available allow prediction 4) If it's proven not true then it's rejected.
4.3 Reproductibility
4.3.1 Must be repeated by independent investigators to ensure a lack of bias
4.3.2 Communication is vital Provides assurance So it could be published in journals , articles , and books.
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